GREENHOUSE

FRUITS TREE

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Fruiting tree, Shrubs and Vines growth in Climate control greenhouse is recognize most modern growing technology in the world today. This technology transformed conventional agriculture in to agriculture business. This technology is enable bulk production in all seasons. This is most economical, water saving and pest less and free from land hazardous due to soil less production system. Plants are hanging and grow in nutrient water in hydroponic system.

The proposed project is a medium sized climate controlled greenhouse Fruits tree, Shrub and Vines can be grow. This unit is one ACRE (210 FT x 210 FT or 44100 SQFT) is proposed to be growth of fruiting trees, shrubs and vines may be grown in the ground or in containers Apples, cherries, figs, peaches and nectarines, pears, plums, grapes, orange, lemon and gages.

The numbers of plants grow in greenhouse with high yield and avoid the losses of pre and post production which is 30 % to 45 % at present and caused of heavy losses in local and international market and production is 20-25 tons lower than to advance countries. To retain the international market and to confront climate change issues demands to change present growing pattern in to modern Greenhouse.

Complete adherence to best agronomic practices is critical to the success of this project. Therefore, technical knowledge and experience of the entrepreneur and market access and knowledge, availability of recommend seeds, nutrients, inputs and required  PH, TDS, PMM level of water  and continuous availability of electric city are absolutely necessary.

The present economic condition and projection of economic growth up to 2.4 % of GDP in manufacturing large scale and small scales industries, dollar fluctuation impacts and duty and taxation ratio on imports , registration efforts on trading  and services sector the Agricultural is the only taxation FREE area of business(at present). Govt support programs in agriculture area, low interest rate on loaning facilities, demand and supply gap and duties on vegetables (approx. 4 $ billion imports) provided a chance for progressive farmers and business institutions to invest in agriculture sector and fulfill the demand and supply gap and export theirs agriculture product to GCC, Russia, central Asia countries and tailor the opportunity around CPEC. China will not establish their own growing units in Pakistan but also import agriculture products in near future. In that favorable prospective agriculture will be played locomotive role in business as a profitable venture.

The cost of construction is little bit higher. The project NPV is project at 68,285,727.00 with an IRR of 64 % and payback period is 3 years.

Disclaimer: 

The information memorandum is to introduce the subject matter and provide a general idea and information on the said project and prospective of future agriculture business. Although the material included in this document are based on experienced practicing farmer’s information’s, from authentic research papers of world known researchers, Dua Enterprises own experiences, world known our principal experiences and Data/information gathered from various reliable sources: Although, due care and diligence has been taken to compile this document, the contained information may vary due to any change in any concerned factors, and the actual results may differ substantially from the presented information.

INTRODUCTION OF DUA ENTERPRISES

Dua Enterprises

Dua Enterprises is commerce in Landscaping, Horticulture, Automatic Irrigation System, Green House, hydroponics, Aquaponics and Aeroponics systems and in alternative energy with aim of enriching of environment, facilitate. Gardening dream in to luxurious lawn and backyard garden, accomplish the needs of

green Pakistan and familiarize counter strategy and induction of technology to cater new emerging challenges of water shortage, power shortage and food security.

Dua Enterprises is one of the leading Greenhouse and hydroponic, Aquaponics and Aeroponics Construction Company having ability to use most advanced technology to construct system for all kind of growers from all over Pakistan as per their requirement. With our well experienced staff we designs, and construct Greenhouses & all kind of hydroponic units considering the Pakistan environment and topography and known for its technological excellence in this field.

We provide one stop solution for greenhouse and all type growing methods from designs to construction and execution and training of staff, we also provide smart agriculture solution with modern LoRa wan technology, IOT and monitoring equipment’s. Low power consumption is the main area where we applied economical methods; with the collaboration of our international we assist our clients with solar wrap system in coversheet which are most economical way of energy. 

Dua Enterprises is associated with world know companies, Hortimax Green-tech Holland, Ridder Drive Systems B.V. Holland ,Hydroponic Technology USA, AYS PROJE TAAHHÜT SAN. TİC. A.Ş. Turkey greenhouse services China and SEMTECH. Our principal not only assisted us for technology/ material but also participated physically in construction of projects and joint venture in GCC countries.

We assist our clients in construction of greenhouse, hydroponic and drip irrigation, after sale services, training of concern staff, facilitation in inputs, seeds, nutrients and fertilizers, financial institutions /bank loans, marketing and sales of products in local market and foreign market specially Russia, GCC and China.

PURPOSE OF THE DOCUMENT

The objective of the pre-feasibility study is primarily to facilitate potential entrepreneurs, progressive farmers in project identification for investment and future prospective of modern agriculture emergence as an industry and its growth, profitability, sustainability as a profitable venture. The project pre-feasibility may form the basis of an important investment decision and in order to serve this objective, the document/study covers various aspects of project concept development, start-up, and production methodology, marketing, finance and business management.

FRUITS PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN

According to Agricultural Statistics, area under cultivation of fruits in Pakistan is about 875,000 hectares. Out of which we are getting 7,200,000 tons of fresh fruits annually. Our average production is about 8.23 Tons per hectare, and having 12 % share in Agriculture GDP,  but according to one study  fruits  production in Pakistan is very low,  which is very low as compared to advanced countries i.e. 20-25 Tons per hectare and only exporting 10- 20 % of its total production.

Agriculture is the second largest sector, accounting for over 21 percent of GDP, and remains by far the largest employer, absorbing 45 percent of the country’s total labour force. Nearly 62 percent of the country’s population resides in rural areas, and is directly or indirectly linked with agriculture for their livelihood.

Fruits growing in Pakistan are: Orange, MangoApple, Apricot, Banana, Cherry, Dates, Guava, Peach, Lemon, Litchi, Papaya, Olive, mulberry, Plums, Pear, Pomegranate, Strawberry, Sweet lime, Apricot and a lot of dry fruits are including Almonds, Pistachios, and Walnuts etc. Regardless of the 4 seasons and cheaper labor fruits, production is facing lot of problems and anguish in low productive and low standard. According to Dr. Mubarik, DG of PARC food contamination is a major issue that had not only endangered public health but also badly affected the country exports. 122 exportable food products were rejected in 2002 on account of food contamination. Rejection is not new phenomena every year number of food product are being every year. All major country and buyer has rejected our products due to mycotoxins, unauthorized additives, microbiological contaminants, organoleptic properties, heavy metals; pesticide residues and allergens and industrial chemicals. We can only address local and international concerns over food products only by adopting good manufacturing practices, quality assurance systems and a food control system for import and exports with efficient regulatory structure to ensure consumers protection.

Post production losses

According to the statistics compiled by the Ministry of Food and Agriculture, because of lack of post- production care, the loss of fruit and vegetable yield suffered by grower’s amounts to almost one-third of the total yield. During 1994-95 alone, the loss of fruit and vegetable production amounted to Rs16, 765 million while the total value was Rs.47, 892 million

 Climate change is another emerging issue is in Pakistan,

The effects of climate change and global warming on Pakistan are in the mean ways like melting of glaciers in the Himalayas, threatening the volumetric flow rate of rivers of Pakistan increasing sea level 10 cm. the effects are projected on millions of lives, unprecedented temperature 52-to- 57oC, tropical storms, economic sustainability, food security 21 million -30 million populations up to 2030.

 Mangoes harvest might reel from unfavorable weather conditions this summer, fearing a significant 20 to 25 percent drop in production of the aromatic and juicy fruit. They feared a shortfall of 300,000 to 400,000 tons in mango output this year compared to the last year. One of researcher Mr Khan estimated that the drop of temperature adversely impacted the pollination process. Low night temperature causes shedding of fruit, which is a loss for the farmers. Besides, hailstorm badly hit mango trees.

Climate change has triggered pest’s infestation, disease incidence and water use and ultimately increased inputs cost in Citrus orchards in Punjab which is main Citrus producing area. Heat and drought stress and fog was more observed in Vehari and Toba Tek Singh (TTS) and more yield reduction and low quality was recorded in these districts than Sargodha. Processing cost increased and more export risk was seen with market fluctuation in climate change scenario. Increased in input cost,

water requirement of plant, reduction in net return and uncertain market were observed. Climate change has directly affected citrus industry.

Similarly Fruit farms have also been severely affected with irreversible damage in large tracts of land, particularly in northern parts of Baluchistan. Farmers face financial ruin as large numbers of trees have virtually dried up and/or been rendered unproductive due to severe water shortages. With ground water levels already very low and receding at an alarming rate, the recovery and continuation of fruit farms may have been compromised in these areas. Fruit production includes citrus, apples, apricots, almonds and mangoes among others. Total production for last five years averaged 6.2 million tonnes annually, including 2 million tonnes of citrus, 900 000 tonnes of mangoes and about 532 000 tonnes of apples. While the figures for 2000/01 are not yet available, it is estimated that apple production was reduced by at least 50 percent due to drought. Fruit farmers, particularly in parts of northern Baluchistan are facing financial ruin as large numbers of trees have dried up and are being cut as firewood. With ground water levels already very low and receding at an alarming rate, the recovery, and continuation of fruit farms may have been compromised in these areas.

The characteristics of products and traditional way of cultivation, low yield and low yield aftermath problems, infrastructure imperfections are emerged in low standard of product.

  1. A) Post-production losses:
  2. B) Perishability:
  3. C) Seasonality
  4. D) Quality: Quality is a combination of agronomic practices, variety characteristics, grading, processing, and finally packaging
  5. E) Small-scale production
  6. F) Supply chain:
  7. G) Lack of infrastructure:
  8. H) Low yields: Low yield is resulting from a combination of price insecurity
  9. I) Absence of cold chain and limited cold storage
  10. J) Standardization: There are no laid down procedures for standardization and quality specifications. In absence of brand names, the importer is not sure of the quality he will be getting that prevents the better quality to fetch a higher price in the international market. 

Above all issue are not helping to increase Export earning, the market value of the total fruits produced in Pakistan is estimated at about 69.2 billion rupees, which is roughly about 8 percent of agricultural value added in the year. Pakistan earned 5.4 billion rupees from fruit exports during 2005-06, representing nearly 11 percent of total amount earned from the export of all raw agricultural commodities. During the year 2005-06, Pakistan exported 262 thousand metric tons of fruit valued at PKR 5.394 billion. The citrus, mangoes, dates, and grapes accounted for 30, 23, 22, and 1 percent respectively in terms of foreign exchange earnings. The export data of fruit

and overtime changes and growth rates for the period 1995-2006 are presented in although the growth in fruit export increased by 6 percent by volume and 14 percent by value over the period between 1994-95 and 2005-06 and increased significantly.

Fruit Export Increases 4.21% in FY 2018-19. During FY 2018-19Pakistan exported 768,202 metric tons of fruit, worth a total of $416 million. This marks an increase of 4.21% compared with last year’s exports, which amounted to 696,648 metric tons, valued at $399.515 million, and import of essential food was USD 6.184 billion to 5.668 billion during the period from July-June 2018-19.

Pakistan is the sixth largest producer of Kinow (mandarin) and oranges in the world, with 2.1 million tons. Pakistan world mandarin and oranges market share during the year 1997 was 0.9 percent and 3.6 percent in terms of value and volume respectively. Fresh dates earned $3.330 million in 99-2000. Whereas, export of dry dates dependent on Indian market, as 92.6 per cent exports of total exports of dry dates goes to India. Pine nuts earned $17.268 million in 99-2000 alone, which is 21.6 per cent of total fruit exports,  the Mango export has attain  target after five years and achieved a record export volume of 115,000 metric tons during this season supported by high standard and aggressive marketing. Exporters said that Pakistani mango managed to get better price in the international market and earned some $80 million for the national exchequer during this season Pakistan is all set to start mango exports from May 20, 2019, eyeing a target of 100,000 metric tons this year.

 

 

 

 

 

Despite the above fact from 2005 to 2019 export earnings and volume are increased but Pakistan has only 0.37% of world fruit exports and needs potential efforts and enhances production capacity for increasing of export volume.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SCOPE IN FRUIT GROWING BUSINESS

Fruits are highly digestible and constitute a significant portion of the diet. Data showed that the per capita consumption of fruits has increased from 28 kg/annum to 35 kg/annum during the period 1970-2000 in Pakistan (FAO, 1999-2001) and vary year to year in 1992 fruits consumption was estimated 86 value, in 97 value increased by 102 or 18.60%, 2002 consumption drop up to 86 or -15.69% little increase in 2007 98 or 13.95 %. This is far low as per FAQ status.

According to a Gilani Research Foundation Survey carried out by Gallup & Gilani Pakistan, only 26% of Pakistanis consume fruit every day. A nationally representative sample of men and women from across the four provinces was asked, “Please tell us how regularly you consume fruit?” In response, 26% said every day, 42% said once a week, 22% said once a month, 9% said sometimes and 1% said never. Urban-Rural Breakdown: Of urban dwellers, 36% said every day, 41% said once a week, 13% said once a month, 9% said sometimes and 1% said never. Of rural dwellers, 21% said every day, 43% said once a week, 27% said once a month, 8% said sometimes and 1% said never. Due to high price, lack availability, low production and wastage of fruits in post-production and market anxiety. Better production system can increase the level of per capita consumption and profitability in local market.

PROCESS INDUSTRY CONSUMPTION

Between July-Feb FY19, Pakistan’s exports of fruits and vegetables stood in excess of 1.165m tons. In July-Feb FY18 it was 1.016m tons. In eight months of this fiscal year i.e. between July 2018 and Feb 2109, forex, earnings of fruits and vegetables totaled $479 million. In the same period last year it was $387m. While this gain of $92m or about 24 per cent looks impressive, this was only achieved after exporting much larger quantities of fruits and vegetables, squeezing supplies in local markets.

Between July-Feb FY19, Pakistan’s exports of fruits and vegetables stood in excess of 1.165m tons. In July-Feb FY18 it was 1.016m tons. In other words, supplies to local markets shrank by no less than 149,000 tons. Its effect can be seen in higher prices of almost all fruits and a number of vegetables, minus potato. There was also a potato glut this year.

Pakistan is a small player in thebe around 2.0 billion liters. During the past decade, the market has grown consistently at an average annual rate of around 15%. About two third of the total market is accounted by fruit drinks.

Gap between local consumption and local production indicates the potential of Processing industry and production of fruits international trade of fruit juices. In 2016, the country exported 4,663 tons of juice with a value of USD 5.7 million. Pakistan’s fruit juices exports include only two product categories. 70% exports fell under the category of ‘mixture of juices’ and 30% under the ‘other juices’ category. UK, Canada, Afghanistan, and USA are the key importers of fruit juices from Pakistan and import ready-to-drink juice 4,647 tons with a value of USD 4.8 million. Local fruit juice market which has grown exponentially over the years to develop a diverse portfolio of ready-to-drink fruit juices, nectars and still drinks (JNSD). The size of JNSD market in 2018 is estimated to

.Pure fruit juices, nectars and drinks are prepared from pulps, purees, and concentrates which are obtained by processing fresh fruits. Most of the fruit and vegetable production is consumed in fresh form. There is a small fruit and vegetable processing industry, which is concentrated around the major cities. There are 25 small and medium industrial units, having an estimated capacity of 45,000 metric ton, engaged in the production of squashes, jams and jellies, pickles and a small quantity of canned fruits and vegetables the production of Ø canned fruits is estimated at 15,000 metric ton. Ø Jams, jellies and marmalades usage are at 2,000 metric tons. Pickles and sauces usage are at 10,000 metric tons. Syrup and squashes at 18,000 million bottles.

Most of the producers of these products are based in the urban areas. Approximately 30 fruit juice pulp processing plants with an installed capacity of 500,000 metric ton per annum are engaged in the production of fruit juices and fruit drinks.

Pine nuts earned $17.268 million in 99-2000 alone, which is 21.6 per cent of total fruit exports. I believe lot of potential available in this sub-sector and exporters will concentrate and will explore new markets to earn good price. At present Germany is main buyer from Pakistan (22.6 per cent) followed by France (21.6 per cent and Middle East (16.5 per cent). Pakistan earned $19.866 million by export of onion in year 1999-00 mainly to Middle East 44.8 per cent (57,760 thousand kg), followed by Sri Lanka 34.5 per cent, Singapore 6.35 per cent, Bangladesh 5.4 per cent and remaining 9 per cent to other countries. Though quantity wise exports increased by 89 per cent as compare to last year 98-99, but there is a sharp decline of 20.4 per cent value wise due to competition.

DATE Large share of fresh dates are being exported to the USA (31.16 percent) followed by India (24.76%), Canada (13.3 per cent), UK (6.9 per cent), Denmark (5.6 per cent), Germany (4.7%), and remaining to other parts of the world. Fresh date’s exports are not relying on one market. Fresh dates earned $3.330 million in 99-2000. Whereas, export of dry dates dependent on Indian market, as 92.6 per cent exports of total exports of dry dates goes to India. 

The numbers, reported by the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, show a couple of things. Firstly, exports of fruits and vegetable are far lower than the country’s potential. Secondly, the average per ton export price is low. And thirdly, since this is in continuation of a trend, more needs to be invested in revamping and modernizing our horticulture sector. In the entire last fiscal year, combined export earnings of fruits and vegetables rose to around $641.7m from $565.8m a year ago, or just around 12%. Meanwhile, export volumes grew to 15.85m tons from 12.78m tons or 24%.

To increase the production we need either to increase the area under fruit cultivation or to go for modern orchard establishment i.e. high-density plantings and best management practices. A demographic change towards urbanization reduces the size of rural workforce, agriculture will also need to adopt new forms of mechanization and shift to land use intensification, with all of its connotations. High agricultural production assures food security and agriculture surpluses for export at competitive prices require efficient development and utilization of agricultural resources. Cost effectiveness in the production of various crops brings built‐in competitive edge to low productivity attributed farmers. Farm operations being time specific, demand precision to optimize the efficiencies of Economic Survey 2009‐10 24 agricultural input for higher productivity. The future changes of free market economy and faster globalization have further necessitated modernization of agricultural machinery through transfer of latest, efficient, and cost effective technologies to the farming community.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Efficient use of scarce agriculture resources and accelerated agricultural mechanization are, therefore, vital to meet the challenges of future scenario that need a comprehensive strategy, need to change the traditional growing pattern to modern growing classification like Greenhouse production, using of sensors system to anticipate issues of plant, soil and environment impacts and to achieve local and international buyer standards and regulation.  

 

CASE STUDY FIG PRODUCTION, PROBLEMS, AND PROFITABILTY

The Fig is being grown as tree (260-435 plants per acre); however results of early trials at National Agriculture Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad have shown that it can be grown as a low height plant in high density plantation as high as strawberry or cotton; in rows (row to row 2 ft and plant to plant 1 ft.; 21780 plants per acre)  Every year after leaf fall (December-January) before spring sprouting if plantation is severely pruned like Falsa (Grewia asiatica L.) leaving 3-6 inch of stem from ground level; one can get 60,000 to 70,000 cuttings (of pruned wood) from an acre for nursery planting. Fruiting commences in less than a year. Over 5 tons of fresh fruit per acre can be harvested as spring crop from the pruned plants every year.

Production, Import and Export

Total area under Figs in Pakistan is 162 ha with 741 tons of production (fresh fruit). Pakistan is an importer of dry figs as the production is not sufficient to cater the needs of growing population. In 2007-08, Pakistan imported dry figs 217 tones worth PKR 4.5 million Turkey, Iran, and Afghanistan being the main source of imported fig.

Value-added Products

Figs can be eaten fresh or dried, used in jam-making and pickling. Most commercial production is in dried or otherwise processed, since the ripe fruit does not transport

Well, and once picked does not keep well. Food products containing figs include fig paste, fig concentrate, fig powder, fig nuggets, and diced and sliced figs. The natural flavor of figs can be preserved in fig jam, preserves, and paste. To make fig concentrate, which replaces sucrose and corn syrup, the water is extracted from the figs. Chopped, diced, and sliced figs are incorporated into food products. When dried, figs are added to cookies, bars, and snacks. Besides high-quality figs for fresh consumption, a small number of figs are canned. The dried seeds in figs contain oil that is 30 percent fatty acids. This edible oil can be used as a lubricant. The natural humectants in figs make them a beneficial ingredient in such health and beauty products as soap, moisturizers, fragrance, and candles. After the fruit harvest, fig leaves are plucked and used for fodder in India. In southern France, fig leaves are used as a source of perfume material; the leaves create a woody-mossy scent

Fig trees can be successfully grown in a heated greenhouse – either when directly planted into the soil or when grown in a container in a greenhouse. It’s worth bearing in mind that it can be quite expensive to heat a greenhouse for the sake of a fig tree, and there’s a lot of watering involved, so before you commit to growing a fig tree inside your greenhouse to take into consideration the pros and cons. One good method of getting over these issues is to grow a fig tree in a container instead, as this can be then be moved outside in the warmer months and both you and your fig tree will get the best of both worlds.

The plants can grow to a considerable height – between 2m height and 3.5m wide – and benefit from having something to grow up against, such as a wall, fence, or canes going up the side of a greenhouse. In order to get the best from the plants, plant them 20cm away from the wall, so that they’ve got space to fan out and be trained up and along the wall. The economic life of the plant is about 8-10 years, the yield increases with increase in canopy size of the tree and stabilizes during eighth year, and production of per tree 18 KG in year mean number of plant in acre are 260 x 18 kg = 4680 kg or 4.866 tons as compared to 3 to 4 tons in open field. Price of fig in retail PKR 2000 per kg mean 4680 x 2000= PKR 9,360,000. International Market price is GBP 9.49 per pound or PKR 3823 per KG.

Similarly the cultivation of Papaya is another profitable fruit tree in greenhouse. According one of progressive farmer Mr. Ch., Zulfiqar Ali, he is growing papaya in Gujranwala since 6 years. According to him that he is earning PKR 6,600,000 from 1200 plants in one acre in open field. According to one study 1800 plant can be grow in one acre in 20-30 gallon pots in greenhouse and gain one papaya melon weight up to 9 kg or and 40 kg per plant. In that case 1800 plants x 40 kg = 72000 kg fruit are being produced. 72000 kg x market price PKR 137/kg = PKR 9,864,000.00 mean 25 % more profit. Now he is preparing to export the papaya fruit GCC countries.

Pineapple is profitable fruit tree to be cultivate in greenhouse and also in Dutch Bucket hydroponics system 25 % faster and 30 % more than to soil, PINEAPPLE is small tree cultivate and grow in lines with the distance of 6 FT and row to row should be 5-6 FT. 200 flower produce 1 fruit in one time. Each tree can be produce 2-3 fruits in his lifetime of 28 month. Each fruit weight is 1 kg to 1.5 kg normally. Economics prospect are very high. 1225 trees in one acre, 1225 x 1.5 kg = 1837 kg and 3 fruit in lifetime = 1837 x 3= 5512 kg in 28 month per acre. 5512 kg x PK 350/kg = PK 1,929,200 in 28 month.

Custard Apple is also considering a profitable fruit tree in green, it is low cost production. Custard Apple can grow in 4 x4 lines and around 250 plants can grow in one acre and total estimated cost is PK 49748 per year only and production of plant  is 35-50 kg or 9.5 to 11 tons per acre after 3 years and ever year, as compare to cost, the income is level higher. In Pakistan custard apple price is PK 800 kg that means if production is availed 11000 kg x PK 800 /kg = PK 8,800,000.00 .

The recommended Exotic Tropical fruits tree for Zone 10.

Apple, Bananas, Oranges, Lemon, Lime, Lychee, Pineapple, Grapes, Dates, Fig, Loquat, Papaya, Pomegranates, Plum, Peach ,Sapodilla, Guava, Jujube Chinese, Sour sop, kumquat fruit, Memey , jackfruit , and 200 varieties of fruits.

GREENHOUSE CONCEPT

Concept of Greenhouse  

 Greenhouses are frames of the inflated structure covered with a transparent material in which crops are grown under controlled environment conditions. … The primary environmental parameter traditionally controlled is temperature, usually providing heat to overcome extreme cold conditions. Greenhouse Technology is the technique of providing favorable environmental conditions to the plants. It is rather used to protect the plants from adverse climatic conditions such as wind, cold, precipitation, excessive radiation, extreme temperature, insects, and diseases.

 The origin of life on earth explains the basic concept of the greenhouse. Before the origin of any living organism on the earth, the temperature of earth was around -18°C due to the absence of an atmosphere between earth and sun. Various gases namely nitrogen (N), carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), oxygen (O2), nitrous oxide (N2O), etc. available inside earth came out through spaces between plates of earth and formed a porous layer around earth, known as atmosphere. The newly formed atmosphere around the earth had a unique property that it absorbed ultraviolet and far-infrared radiation coming from the sun and allowed only short-wavelength (0.3-3 μm) radiation emitted by the sun to reach the earth surface. Further, the atmosphere did not allow long-wavelength (> 3.0 μm) radiation emitted by the earth. Hence, the trapped thermal energy raised the temperature of the earth and air between earth and atmosphere. The rise of the temperature of the air is known as the greenhouse effect. According to Encyclopedia 2000, the greenhouse effect for the environment is defined as:

Greenhouse Effect – the term for the role the atmosphere plays in insulating and warming the earth’s surface. The atmosphere is largely transparent to incoming solar radiation. When this radiation strikes the earth’s surface, some of it is absorbed, thereby warming the earth’s surface. The surface of the earth emits some of this energy back out in the form of infrared radiation. As this infrared radiation travels through the atmosphere, much of it is absorbed by atmospheric gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous

oxide, and water vapor. These gases then re-emit infrared radiation, some of which strikes and is absorbed by the earth. The absorption of infrared energy by the atmosphere and the earth called the greenhouse effect, maintains a temperature range on earth that is hospitable to life.

 

Advantages of Green House

A greenhouse is a closed space for the cultivation of fruits and vegetables, consists of a structure that support a translucent outer shell, glass, polycarbonate sheet or plastic sheet 100 to 200 micron. It is a protected place where you can control environmental factors for optimal plant growth. 

1- Good distribution of light inside the greenhouse. The greenhouse covers can change the direction of the sun’s rays, thus evenly distributed over the entire surface, benefiting the entire greenhouse and avoiding the sun’s rays directly to the plant.

2- Energy efficiency. Takes advantage of the environmental conditions, such as optimizing the heat inside the greenhouse.

3- Control of microclimate. One of the main advantages of a greenhouse is to control and establish the optimal environment for cultivation. You can adjust the temperature, humidity, lighting, etc.

4- Protection against diseases, pests and other vermin. Another advantage of a greenhouse is that it is very difficult to enter as it is a closed space.

5- Excellent ventilation. You can ventilate the greenhouse quickly, thanks to their zenithal or side windows.

6- Optimum sealing against rain and air.

7- Increased production. This is a great advantage of a greenhouse, can intensify production due to weather conditions, can accelerate the growth of the plants and also allows a greater amount of crop on the surface. According to analyses 10-12 % higher growth rate is through the greenhouse.

8- Production off-season. Thanks to the environmental control of the greenhouse can produce off-season; therefore we will have a better sale price and a continuous supply of the product.

9- Production in regions with adverse weather conditions.

10- Ability to grow all year. You can get more than one crop cycle per year and different species of plants.

11- Optimizes the use of other technologies to facilitate the management of climate (heating, humidification, shade screens or saving energy, etc.)

According to one survey, 30 % of crop losses are reported during harvesting and unfavorable weather condition. In Baluchistan, KPK and northern area fruits orchards are facing heavy losses due to weather and unavailability of water. Cultivation in Greenhouse is world know and recommended phenomena and farmers are getting more production and saved water, fertilizer and pesticide expenditure. Greenhouse Production cost is remaining miner as compared to production and sale.

No doubt, mechanization of agriculture is increasing in Pakistan, but in most of the areas, the old implements are still being used for agricultural production. Old and orthodox techniques of production cannot increase the production according to international levels.

 

HOW TO MANAGE FRUIT GREENHOUSE & NEEDS

In a greenhouse, fruiting trees, shrubs, and vines may be grown in the ground or in containers. Growing fruit trees in a greenhouse rewards framer with fresh fruit, no matter how frightful the weather gets outside. Greenhouse fruits growing phenomena is in introduced 19th century in England for oranges growth. Growers can grow several kinds of fruit trees in the greenhouse, including pears, peaches, bananas, oranges, and tropical fruits that appreciate year-round warmth. Climate control greenhouse granting protects from the blossom and fruiting from spring frosts, pests and extreme weather, birds as the fruit matures easier. Greenhouse is ultimately helping producer to produce superior fruits.

  • Fruit trees may also be grown in the unheated greenhouse in, soil, pots, tubs, or boxes. The restriction of the roots induces early fruiting and keeps the trees small. Containerized stone fruitsmay be kept year-round in the greenhouse, or moved into it for a little as a few weeks to protect blossoms from killing frigidities in spring or to extend the growing season for late-ripening varieties. But some heat is necessary. The blossom and newly-set fruitlets of all hardy fruits are susceptible to frost. In an unheated greenhouse sun-heat is stored up during the daytime so that the average temperature is well above that prevailing outside. Further, the occupants of such a greenhouse are not exposed to chilling, growth-inhibiting winds, and these two factors result in earlier blossoming this, of course, increases the risk of frost coinciding with flowering. Just sufficient heating, therefore, must be available to keep the temperature above 32°F (0°C) during the coldest weather. Growing fruit trees in the greenhouse, farmers will need to provide a warm environment plants to thrive. Most fruit trees appreciate temperatures above 50 degrees Fahrenheit (10 0C), including bananas and citrus trees, while tropical fruit trees need temperatures above 60 F (15 0C). For example Citrus trees prefer a humid environment, with light, frequent watering and regular misting.
  • Fruit trees do best in warm weather and mild winters, growing them in greenhouse ensures that tree will received adequate temperature and environment without the problems the tree are facing in outdoor.
  • Although plenty of water will be required in the growing season, water management and fertilizing through automatic controlling system and drainage system of extra water system is must be impeccable. Greenhouse-grown plants (and any plants, for that matter) cannot survive without some form of irrigation. While there are different types of greenhouse irrigation systems are available – including sprinkler and subsurface systems – we use a drip irrigation system because of itsefficiency and accuracy. Drip irrigation is exactly what it sounds like – irrigation administered to a crop through dripper technology. Every plant gets its own dripper tube, which is typically placed in the back corner of the substrate block in which our plants sit.

Drip irrigation is an efficient way to irrigate greenhouse crops – the placement of our dripper tubes makes it easy for our Growers to deliver precise volumes of nutrient water directly to the root systems of our plants.

The Design of Drip irrigation system according to water needs of plant in all seasons. Drip irrigation process uses a pressure compensated drip tube system that releases a specified volume of water once x amount of water pressure is applied to the dripper’s release valve. This allows for water and nutrients to be evenly distributed across our entire crop. Irrigation system is linked with temperatures fluctuate at

different times of the year, efficient operation link with light levels – the more sunlight shining on  plants, the more they generally need to be irrigated for the effective  the process of photosynthesis – light is what activates a plant’s energy creation process, so more light means a plant will start working harder to grow leaves and fruit (which means more elements like water and CO2 are needed if a plant is going to successfully create glucose to feed itself).

  • Automatic ventilation controls the indoor air flow. It gives greenhouse plants with a consistent supply of carbon dioxide. They require this for sugar and oxygen production. The concentrated carbon dioxide will result in bigger leaves and vigorous plant stems. It also increases its potential for early flowering and fruiting.
  • Greenhouses with moisture regulators keep the air humid for peak plant development. With a humid atmosphere, every plant can focus on flowering and fruiting. Plus a moist soil will be less likely to entertain pests and diseases. In really hot weather there is another trick to keep plants cool: damping down. Damping down is the process of raising the humidity inside the greenhouseby wetting hard surfaces such as paths and staging. As the water evaporates, it increases the moisture level of the air, which helps plants to cope with the heat. One of the best methods growers use is a fogging system to regulate humidity and create an ideal setting for plants to grow. Fogging is essentially a visible cloud of water droplets suspended in the air, both cooling and moisturizing the grow environment.
  • Co2 system, CO2concentration in ambient air ranges from 300-500 parts per million (ppm), with a global atmospheric average of about 400 ppm. If you are growing in a greenhouse or indoors, the CO2 levels will be reduced as the plants use it up during photosynthesis. Efficient CO2 generator and controlling system are essential part of greenhouse.
  • Cooling system Fan and Pad Evaporative Cooling Systems. Evaporative cooling, which uses the heat in the air to evaporate water from plants and other wetted surfaces can be used to cool the greenhouseas much as 10 to 20ºF below the outside temperature. … Changing water from the liquid to the vapor phase absorbs considerable heat.
  • Smart Agriculture operates in greenhouse, today smart Agriculture devices change the whole agriculture concept, from growing- harvesting-marketing are control and single handle manageable. In 2020 to 2025 agriculture completely converted /controlled on smart agriculture devices. Through this system Greenhouse climate system, plant growth monitoring, plants fertilizer, water needs can be evaluate and monitor well in time, assess the soil fertility, moisture level can be dedicated, similarly deficiencies and diseases of plant monitor through sensor LoRa wan system.

  • Photosynthesis System, Photosynthesis System is a portable, single-handed tool that measures photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, stomatal conductance, PAR and internal CO­2. Light-weight and durable, the CI-340 was designed for field use. The optional accessory modules allow researchers to control CO2, H2O, temperature, light intensity, and measure chlorophyll fluorescence, while the ten different customized chambers accommodate any leaf size, including conifer needles and cacti. Direct chamber connection to the CO2/H2O gas

Analyzer reduces measurement delay and enables rapid measurement of gas exchange with minimal delays.

  • Energy Preservation is another important need of framers and to manage the cost of production. Solawrap sheet is inbuilt with solar cell in the cover sheet. This sheet is working in highly snow area, windy area and heating area efficiently. This sheet is able to fulfill the energy demand of greenhouse operation.

MULTI-SPAN GREENHOUSE

Multi span Climate control greenhouse is special design as per client requirement and weather conditions semi commercial Multi-span climate greenhouse is one acre in its size, it can be extended up to acres. Best size of commercial green house is 2 ha to 5 ha.

Description

 

 

Details

SIZE

L 210 x Width depend of land size x 14 FT.

Span size

25 FT or 30 FT as per requirement

Centre height

 Normally 22 FT or depend of fruit tree.

One acre

 6-7 span with rainwater drainage (Gutter system)

Types of Multi type

TOP closed and arm side open, left top open, right top open, both side open

Cultivation

Soil and soil less (hydroponic, aeroponic etc.)

Facilitation in green house

Equipped with Cooling Pad, Exhaust Fan, Circulating Fan, Misting and Humidity system and controller, Fertilizers injection system, Drip irrigation to totally automatic watering system, R.O. plant, water Sterilization system, water Filtering system, HIP, HPS and growing UV Lighting system, Smart controlling system along with sensors, Co2, Ozona, oxygen and PLC system, Germination system ,smart Agriculture Sensors system.

ENERGY SAVING SOLUTION

Solarwarp sheet for energy saving.

SALIENT FEATURES OF GREENHOUSE

ITEMS

DETIALS

ONE ACRE SIZE IS VARY IN DIFFERENT PART OF PAKISTAN semi commercial unit.

210 FT X 210 FT OR 210 FT X 198 FT

SQFT

44100 SQFT

DESIGN

MULTI SPAN 30 FT X 210 FT X 7 SPANS

HEIGHT

CENTRE 22 FT

RAIN DRAINAGE SYSTEM

GI GUTTER SYSTEM

GREEN HOUSE STRUCTURE  FOR 80- 12O KMPH WIND

GI PIPE TUBE PILLARS 3” WITH THICKNESS 2MM,ARCH WT 2” WT 2MM, SUPPORT BARS 2” WT 2MM, 25MM WT 2 MM AND 16MM WT 2MM

COVER SHEET, PLOY FLIM OR POLY CARBONATE SHEET

200 MICROON , 5 LAYER

19’ X 81” AND 6MM POLYCARBONATE SHEET AS PER DEMAND OF AREA & WIND PRESSURE & SNOW WEIGHT

ENERY SAVING

SOLARWRAP SHEET According to consumption energy.

SHEET FAXING

PROFILE AND ZIGZAG WIRE

GREEN SHADE

FR, BOTH AUTOMATIC OR MANUL INSIDE OR OUT SIDE GREEN HOUSE AS DEMAND ALONG WITH SIDE WALLS

CIVIL WORK

CONTREATE SIDE WALLS, TUFF TILES FLOORING OR SAND MUD WITH FABRIC SHEET AS PER LEVEL OF LAND.

DOOR

ALUMIUN SLIDING DOOR

VENTILATION & COOLING SYSTEM  FOR 617400 CFM

COOLING PAD, EXHUAST FAN, CIRCULATING FAN

MESTING & FOGGING, AIR PRUFICATION, INSECT SPARY

IMPORTED SYSTEM

FERTILER INJECTION (FRETIGATION SYSTEM)

 

FRENCH OR CHINESE DOZING SYSTEM per BLOCKS

WATER CONTROL SYSTEM

AUTOMATIC WATER CONTROLLING SYSTEM  17 ZONES

NUTIRENT WATER DISTRIBUTION AND STORAGE TANKS

NUTIRENT WATER DISTRIBUTION AND RECYCLING SYSTEM

WATER PUREFICATION SYSTEM

SCAN FILTER, MUD AND SAND CLEANING SYSTEM

RO PLANTS

TO CONTROL TDS LEVEL OF WATER

Cos SYSTEM AND AIR SYSTEM

OXGEN SYSTEM, AIR SYSTEM

INNER SYSTEM

Co2, Ozon,

SMART EQUIPMENT

Plant phenotyping system, photo thesis system, IoT, senor system with monitoring and operation.

 

 

PLANTS GROWING UNITS/POCKETS IN GUTTER SYSTEM

Depend of Fruit tree

 ECONOMIC BENEFITS

Economic benefits are very high, profitability of fruits growth in climate controlled greenhouse are very high, consistence and sustainable and as compared open area cultivation greenhouse growth is much more cost effective and saving of water, fertilizer and very minimal pest/ chemical usage.

ONE ACRE SEMICOMMERCIAL FRUIT TREE CLIMATE CONTROLLED GREENHOUSE

Description

Papaya

Pineapple

Custard apple

FIG

plants

1800

1225

250

260

Fruiting time

 

24-28 month

3 year

 

Fruit per plant

40 KG

4.5 KG

35-50 KG

18 KG

Production  in year

7200 KG

5152 KG

11000 KG

4680 KG

Market price

PK 137/KG

PK 350/KG

PK 800/KG

PK 2000/KG

Calculation

137X 7200

350X 5152

800X 11000

2000X 4680

Revenue

9,864,000

1,803,200

8,800,000

9,360,000

DESCRIPTION

Apple

LemonCitrus

Plum

Malta (oragne)

plants

34

136

100-110

99

Per plant production

400

1500 lemon/tree

50-60 KG

500-1000

production

2666 KG

12000 to 15000 KG

6600 KG

9000 KG 0R 622 BOXES

Market Price

PK 175

PK 80

PK 195

PK 125

 

466,550

850,714

1,293,600

777,500

 EXPENDITURES

Expenditure is varying according to fruits; hereunder we just calculate general expenditure.

Description

Costing

Plant

Varying according to verity

Plantation cost

15660

Production cost 

54100

Packing & Marketing cost

94955

Electric city

28,000

Admin cost

40,000

Total

232,715.00

 FIG FINANCAIL REVIEW

Description

Year 1-2

Year3-4

Year 5-6

Year 7-8

Year 9-10

 

Revenue

9,360,000

10,296,000

11,325,600

12,458,160

13,703,976

 

Expenditure

255,986

238,755

262,630

288,893

317,782

 

G/profit

9,104,014

10,057,245

11,062,970

12,169,267

13,386,194

 

Market commission

936,000

1,029,600

1,132,560

1,245816

1,370,397

 

Admin cost

125,000

131,250

137,812

144,702

151,937

 

Before Tax

8,043,014

8,896,395

9,792,598

10,778,749

11,863,860

 

Taxes

1,228,952

1,356,959

1,491,389

1,639,312

1,802,079

 

Net /profit

6,814,062

7,539,436

8,301,209

9,139,437

10,061,781

 

 CONSTRUCTION COST OF MULTI SPAN PROJECT:

CONSTRUCTION COST

 

 

Skelton 3” WT 2MM, ARCH 2” WT 2MM, SUPPORT BARS 25MM WT 2MM 16 MM WT 2MM (multi span)

3,198,899.00

 

COVERSHEET 200 MICROON

950,000.00

 

Mesh sheet

165,000

4,313,899.00

MISTING AND FOGGING SYSTEM (AUTOMATIC)

 

 

Profile file and zigzag wire

175,000.00

175,000.00

LOCAL OR CHINESE

225,000.00

225,000.00

COOLING AND VENTILATION SYSTEM (AUTOMATIC)

 

 

COOLING PADS, EXHUAST FAN, CIRCULATING FAN, HUMIDITY CONTROLING SYSTEM (AUTOMATIC )

8,77,300.00

8,77,300.00

HUMIDITY TUBs

125,000.00

125,000.00

DRIP IRRIGATION COST

166,000.00

166,000.00

CO2 system

260,000.00

260,000.00

CIVIL WORK  PKR 45 FT X 44100 SQFT

275,500.00

275,500.00

MISC

100,000.00

100,000.00

 

 

 

SMART AGRICULTURE EQUIPMENT

AS PER REQUIRMENT & DEMAND

LABOUR COST

325,000.00

325,000.00

TOTAL:

 

6,392,824.00

 

 

 

SERVICES CHARGES 6 % OF TOTAL COST

 

383,569.00

 

 

 

.ABOVE CACULATION BASED USD 1= PKR 160, USD FLECTION MIGHT BE MINUS – PLUS IN COST

  • ALL GOVT DUTIES AND TAXES WILL ADD-UP ACCORDINGLY
  • REPLACMENT OF EQUIPMENT
  • 75 % Advance and 15 % in middle of job and 10 % on completion of job.

DESCRIPTION

DETAILS

REPLACMENT OF COVER SHEET IN YEARS

4

REPLACMENT green shade

6

REPLACMENT OF COOLING PADS

5

PROJECT FINANCING Description

DETAILS

Total project financing

PKR 6,625,324.00

Running finance

217,500.00

Owner equity

50 %

Bank equity if bank is involved

50 %

Markup

Interest rate Agri bank 6 % interest rate % 12.50

Tenure is payback (years )

5

  • PROJECT ECONOMICS

DESCRIPTION

DETAILS

INTERNAL RATE OF RETURN (IRR)

32 %

PAYBACK PERIOD (Yrs)

2.2

NET PRESENT VALUE (NPV) Rs.

13629010

Operational cost

20-23 %

  • The above tables shows internal rate of return, payback period and net present value. Return on investment and its profitability are highly dependent on the entrepreneur having some practical knowledge about agriculture, framing, technology know how, operational capacity of staff and market knowledge. Selection of high quality seeds, fertilizer, supplements and vegetables cultivation.
  • KEY ASSUSPTIONS

DESCRITION (Operating cost assumption)

DETAILS

Administration benefits expenses

05% of admin expense

Communication expenses

 

21,000 annual expense

Travelling expense

35,000 annual expense

Promotional expense on social media

75,000

Professional fees (legal, audit, consultant)

05% of revenue

Deprecation

5 %

Office expenses

40,000

Office vehicles insurance rate

10%

Depreciation on green house and equipment’s

33 %

Depreciation of vehicle

20 %

Operating costs growth rate

5 %

Accounts receivable cycle

25 days

Raw material inventory

06 months

Amortization of pre operating expenses

05 years

Description of production cost assumption

Details

Cost of goods sold growth rates

 10 %

Operating cost growth rate

10 %

Fruit  market expense

10 %

Farm to market trip cost

PKR8000x 3= 24000 per trip load 14 tons

No of trips 12

Description of Revenue assumption

 

Sales prices growth rate

10 %

Production capacity utilization (1-10)

100 %

Days operation

365 days

Financial assumptions

 

Project life

10

Structure grantees

10-12 year

Debt

50 %

Equity 

50 %

Interest rate on debt

20 %

Debt tenure

5

Debt payment years

10

DUA ENTERPRISES

www.duaenterprises.net

shoaibdua2009@gmail