GREENHOUSE

FRUITS TREE

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Fruiting tree, Shrubs and Vines growth in Climate control greenhouse is recognize most modern growing technology in the world today. This technology transformed conventional agriculture in to agriculture business. This technology is enable bulk production in all seasons. This is most economical, water saving and pest less and free from land hazardous due to soil less production system. Plants are hanging and grow in nutrient water in hydroponic system.

The proposed project is a medium sized climate controlled greenhouse Fruits tree, Shrub and Vines can be grow. This unit is one ACRE (210 FT x 210 FT or 44100 SQFT) is proposed to be growth of fruiting trees, shrubs and vines may be grown in the ground or in containers Apples, cherries, figs, peaches and nectarines, pears, plums, grapes, orange, lemon and gages.

The numbers of plants grow in greenhouse with high yield and avoid the losses of pre and post production which is 30 % to 45 % at present and caused of heavy losses in local and international market and production is 20-25 tons lower than to advance countries. To retain the international market and to confront climate change issues demands to change present growing pattern in to modern Greenhouse.

Complete adherence to best agronomic practices is critical to the success of this project. Therefore, technical knowledge and experience of the entrepreneur and market access and knowledge, availability of recommend seeds, nutrients, inputs and required  PH, TDS, PMM level of water  and continuous availability of electric city are absolutely necessary.

The present economic condition and projection of economic growth up to 2.4 % of GDP in manufacturing large scale and small scales industries, dollar fluctuation impacts and duty and taxation ratio on imports , registration efforts on trading  and services sector the Agricultural is the only taxation FREE area of business(at present). Govt support programs in agriculture area, low interest rate on loaning facilities, demand and supply gap and duties on vegetables (approx. 4 $ billion imports) provided a chance for progressive farmers and business institutions to invest in agriculture sector and fulfill the demand and supply gap and export theirs agriculture product to GCC, Russia, central Asia countries and tailor the opportunity around CPEC. China will not establish their own growing units in Pakistan but also import agriculture products in near future. In that favorable prospective agriculture will be played locomotive role in business as a profitable venture.

The cost of construction is little bit higher. The project NPV is project at 68,285,727.00 with an IRR of 64 % and payback period is 3 years.

Disclaimer: 

The information memorandum is to introduce the subject matter and provide a general idea and information on the said project and prospective of future agriculture business. Although the material included in this document are based on experienced practicing farmer’s information’s, from authentic research papers of world known researchers, Dua Enterprises own experiences, world known our principal experiences and Data/information gathered from various reliable sources: Although, due care and diligence has been taken to compile this document, the contained information may vary due to any change in any concerned factors, and the actual results may differ substantially from the presented information.

INTRODUCTION OF DUA ENTERPRISES

Dua Enterprises

Dua Enterprises is commerce in Landscaping, Horticulture, Automatic Irrigation System, Green House, hydroponics, Aquaponics and Aeroponics systems and in alternative energy with aim of enriching of environment, facilitate. Gardening dream in to luxurious lawn and backyard garden, accomplish the needs of

green Pakistan and familiarize counter strategy and induction of technology to cater new emerging challenges of water shortage, power shortage and food security.

Dua Enterprises is one of the leading Greenhouse and hydroponic, Aquaponics and Aeroponics Construction Company having ability to use most advanced technology to construct system for all kind of growers from all over Pakistan as per their requirement. With our well experienced staff we designs, and construct Greenhouses & all kind of hydroponic units considering the Pakistan environment and topography and known for its technological excellence in this field.

We provide one stop solution for greenhouse and all type growing methods from designs to construction and execution and training of staff, we also provide smart agriculture solution with modern LoRa wan technology, IOT and monitoring equipment’s. Low power consumption is the main area where we applied economical methods; with the collaboration of our international we assist our clients with solar wrap system in coversheet which are most economical way of energy. 

Dua Enterprises is associated with world know companies, Hortimax Green-tech Holland, Ridder Drive Systems B.V. Holland ,Hydroponic Technology USA, AYS PROJE TAAHHÜT SAN. TİC. A.Ş. Turkey greenhouse services China and SEMTECH. Our principal not only assisted us for technology/ material but also participated physically in construction of projects and joint venture in GCC countries.

We assist our clients in construction of greenhouse, hydroponic and drip irrigation, after sale services, training of concern staff, facilitation in inputs, seeds, nutrients and fertilizers, financial institutions /bank loans, marketing and sales of products in local market and foreign market specially Russia, GCC and China.

PURPOSE OF THE DOCUMENT

The objective of the pre-feasibility study is primarily to facilitate potential entrepreneurs, progressive farmers in project identification for investment and future prospective of modern agriculture emergence as an industry and its growth, profitability, sustainability as a profitable venture. The project pre-feasibility may form the basis of an important investment decision and in order to serve this objective, the document/study covers various aspects of project concept development, start-up, and production methodology, marketing, finance and business management.

FRUITS PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN

According to Agricultural Statistics, area under cultivation of fruits in Pakistan is about 875,000 hectares. Out of which we are getting 7,200,000 tons of fresh fruits annually. Our average production is about 8.23 Tons per hectare, and having 12 % share in Agriculture GDP,  but according to one study  fruits  production in Pakistan is very low,  which is very low as compared to advanced countries i.e. 20-25 Tons per hectare and only exporting 10- 20 % of its total production.

Agriculture is the second largest sector, accounting for over 21 percent of GDP, and remains by far the largest employer, absorbing 45 percent of the country’s total labour force. Nearly 62 percent of the country’s population resides in rural areas, and is directly or indirectly linked with agriculture for their livelihood.

Fruits growing in Pakistan are: Orange, MangoApple, Apricot, Banana, Cherry, Dates, Guava, Peach, Lemon, Litchi, Papaya, Olive, mulberry, Plums, Pear, Pomegranate, Strawberry, Sweet lime, Apricot and a lot of dry fruits are including Almonds, Pistachios, and Walnuts etc. Regardless of the 4 seasons and cheaper labor fruits, production is facing lot of problems and anguish in low productive and low standard. According to Dr. Mubarik, DG of PARC food contamination is a major issue that had not only endangered public health but also badly affected the country exports. 122 exportable food products were rejected in 2002 on account of food contamination. Rejection is not new phenomena every year number of food product are being every year. All major country and buyer has rejected our products due to mycotoxins, unauthorized additives, microbiological contaminants, organoleptic properties, heavy metals; pesticide residues and allergens and industrial chemicals. We can only address local and international concerns over food products only by adopting good manufacturing practices, quality assurance systems and a food control system for import and exports with efficient regulatory structure to ensure consumers protection.

Post production losses

According to the statistics compiled by the Ministry of Food and Agriculture, because of lack of post- production care, the loss of fruit and vegetable yield suffered by grower’s amounts to almost one-third of the total yield. During 1994-95 alone, the loss of fruit and vegetable production amounted to Rs16, 765 million while the total value was Rs.47, 892 million

 Climate change is another emerging issue is in Pakistan,

The effects of climate change and global warming on Pakistan are in the mean ways like melting of glaciers in the Himalayas, threatening the volumetric flow rate of rivers of Pakistan increasing sea level 10 cm. the effects are projected on millions of lives, unprecedented temperature 52-to- 57oC, tropical storms, economic sustainability, food security 21 million -30 million populations up to 2030.

 Mangoes harvest might reel from unfavorable weather conditions this summer, fearing a significant 20 to 25 percent drop in production of the aromatic and juicy fruit. They feared a shortfall of 300,000 to 400,000 tons in mango output this year compared to the last year. One of researcher Mr Khan estimated that the drop of temperature adversely impacted the pollination process. Low night temperature causes shedding of fruit, which is a loss for the farmers. Besides, hailstorm badly hit mango trees.

Climate change has triggered pest’s infestation, disease incidence and water use and ultimately increased inputs cost in Citrus orchards in Punjab which is main Citrus producing area. Heat and drought stress and fog was more observed in Vehari and Toba Tek Singh (TTS) and more yield reduction and low quality was recorded in these districts than Sargodha. Processing cost increased and more export risk was seen with market fluctuation in climate change scenario. Increased in input cost,

water requirement of plant, reduction in net return and uncertain market were observed. Climate change has directly affected citrus industry.

Similarly Fruit farms have also been severely affected with irreversible damage in large tracts of land, particularly in northern parts of Baluchistan. Farmers face financial ruin as large numbers of trees have virtually dried up and/or been rendered unproductive due to severe water shortages. With ground water levels already very low and receding at an alarming rate, the recovery and continuation of fruit farms may have been compromised in these areas. Fruit production includes citrus, apples, apricots, almonds and mangoes among others. Total production for last five years averaged 6.2 million tonnes annually, including 2 million tonnes of citrus, 900 000 tonnes of mangoes and about 532 000 tonnes of apples. While the figures for 2000/01 are not yet available, it is estimated that apple production was reduced by at least 50 percent due to drought. Fruit farmers, particularly in parts of northern Baluchistan are facing financial ruin as large numbers of trees have dried up and are being cut as firewood. With ground water levels already very low and receding at an alarming rate, the recovery, and continuation of fruit farms may have been compromised in these areas.

The characteristics of products and traditional way of cultivation, low yield and low yield aftermath problems, infrastructure imperfections are emerged in low standard of product.

  1. A) Post-production losses:
  2. B) Perishability:
  3. C) Seasonality
  4. D) Quality: Quality is a combination of agronomic practices, variety characteristics, grading, processing, and finally packaging
  5. E) Small-scale production
  6. F) Supply chain:
  7. G) Lack of infrastructure:
  8. H) Low yields: Low yield is resulting from a combination of price insecurity
  9. I) Absence of cold chain and limited cold storage
  10. J) Standardization: There are no laid down procedures for standardization and quality specifications. In absence of brand names, the importer is not sure of the quality he will be getting that prevents the better quality to fetch a higher price in the international market. 

Above all issue are not helping to increase Export earning, the market value of the total fruits produced in Pakistan is estimated at about 69.2 billion rupees, which is roughly about 8 percent of agricultural value added in the year. Pakistan earned 5.4 billion rupees from fruit exports during 2005-06, representing nearly 11 percent of total amount earned from the export of all raw agricultural commodities. During the year 2005-06, Pakistan exported 262 thousand metric tons of fruit valued at PKR 5.394 billion. The citrus, mangoes, dates, and grapes accounted for 30, 23, 22, and 1 percent respectively in terms of foreign exchange earnings. The export data of fruit

and overtime changes and growth rates for the period 1995-2006 are presented in although the growth in fruit export increased by 6 percent by volume and 14 percent by value over the period between 1994-95 and 2005-06 and increased significantly.

Fruit Export Increases 4.21% in FY 2018-19. During FY 2018-19Pakistan exported 768,202 metric tons of fruit, worth a total of $416 million. This marks an increase of 4.21% compared with last year’s exports, which amounted to 696,648 metric tons, valued at $399.515 million, and import of essential food was USD 6.184 billion to 5.668 billion during the period from July-June 2018-19.

Pakistan is the sixth largest producer of Kinow (mandarin) and oranges in the world, with 2.1 million tons. Pakistan world mandarin and oranges market share during the year 1997 was 0.9 percent and 3.6 percent in terms of value and volume respectively. Fresh dates earned $3.330 million in 99-2000. Whereas, export of dry dates dependent on Indian market, as 92.6 per cent exports of total exports of dry dates goes to India. Pine nuts earned $17.268 million in 99-2000 alone, which is 21.6 per cent of total fruit exports,  the Mango export has attain  target after five years and achieved a record export volume of 115,000 metric tons during this season supported by high standard and aggressive marketing. Exporters said that Pakistani mango managed to get better price in the international market and earned some $80 million for the national exchequer during this season Pakistan is all set to start mango exports from May 20, 2019, eyeing a target of 100,000 metric tons this year.

 

 

 

 

 

Despite the above fact from 2005 to 2019 export earnings and volume are increased but Pakistan has only 0.37% of world fruit exports and needs potential efforts and enhances production capacity for increasing of export volume.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SCOPE IN FRUIT GROWING BUSINESS

Fruits are highly digestible and constitute a significant portion of the diet. Data showed that the per capita consumption of fruits has increased from 28 kg/annum to 35 kg/annum during the period 1970-2000 in Pakistan (FAO, 1999-2001) and vary year to year in 1992 fruits consumption was estimated 86 value, in 97 value increased by 102 or 18.60%, 2002 consumption drop up to 86 or -15.69% little increase in 2007 98 or 13.95 %. This is far low as per FAQ status.

According to a Gilani Research Foundation Survey carried out by Gallup & Gilani Pakistan, only 26% of Pakistanis consume fruit every day. A nationally representative sample of men and women from across the four provinces was asked, “Please tell us how regularly you consume fruit?” In response, 26% said every day, 42% said once a week, 22% said once a month, 9% said sometimes and 1% said never. Urban-Rural Breakdown: Of urban dwellers, 36% said every day, 41% said once a week, 13% said once a month, 9% said sometimes and 1% said never. Of rural dwellers, 21% said every day, 43% said once a week, 27% said once a month, 8% said sometimes and 1% said never. Due to high price, lack availability, low production and wastage of fruits in post-production and market anxiety. Better production system can increase the level of per capita consumption and profitability in local market.

PROCESS INDUSTRY CONSUMPTION

Between July-Feb FY19, Pakistan’s exports of fruits and vegetables stood in excess of 1.165m tons. In July-Feb FY18 it was 1.016m tons. In eight months of this fiscal year i.e. between July 2018 and Feb 2109, forex, earnings of fruits and vegetables totaled $479 million. In the same period last year it was $387m. While this gain of $92m or about 24 per cent looks impressive, this was only achieved after exporting much larger quantities of fruits and vegetables, squeezing supplies in local markets.

Between July-Feb FY19, Pakistan’s exports of fruits and vegetables stood in excess of 1.165m tons. In July-Feb FY18 it was 1.016m tons. In other words, supplies to local markets shrank by no less than 149,000 tons. Its effect can be seen in higher prices of almost all fruits and a number of vegetables, minus potato. There was also a potato glut this year.

Pakistan is a small player in thebe around 2.0 billion liters. During the past decade, the market has grown consistently at an average annual rate of around 15%. About two third of the total market is accounted by fruit drinks.

Gap between local consumption and local production indicates the potential of Processing industry and production of fruits international trade of fruit juices. In 2016, the country exported 4,663 tons of juice with a value of USD 5.7 million. Pakistan’s fruit juices exports include only two product categories. 70% exports fell under the category of ‘mixture of juices’ and 30% under the ‘other juices’ category. UK, Canada, Afghanistan, and USA are the key importers of fruit juices from Pakistan and import ready-to-drink juice 4,647 tons with a value of USD 4.8 million. Local fruit juice market which has grown exponentially over the years to develop a diverse portfolio of ready-to-drink fruit juices, nectars and still drinks (JNSD). The size of JNSD market in 2018 is estimated to

.Pure fruit juices, nectars and drinks are prepared from pulps, purees, and concentrates which are obtained by processing fresh fruits. Most of the fruit and vegetable production is consumed in fresh form. There is a small fruit and vegetable processing industry, which is concentrated around the major cities. There are 25 small and medium industrial units, having an estimated capacity of 45,000 metric ton, engaged in the production of squashes, jams and jellies, pickles and a small quantity of canned fruits and vegetables the production of Ø canned fruits is estimated at 15,000 metric ton. Ø Jams, jellies and marmalades usage are at 2,000 metric tons. Pickles and sauces usage are at 10,000 metric tons. Syrup and squashes at 18,000 million bottles.

Most of the producers of these products are based in the urban areas. Approximately 30 fruit juice pulp processing plants with an installed capacity of 500,000 metric ton per annum are engaged in the production of fruit juices and fruit drinks.

Pine nuts earned $17.268 million in 99-2000 alone, which is 21.6 per cent of total fruit exports. I believe lot of potential available in this sub-sector and exporters will concentrate and will explore new markets to earn good price. At present Germany is main buyer from Pakistan (22.6 per cent) followed by France (21.6 per cent and Middle East (16.5 per cent). Pakistan earned $19.866 million by export of onion in year 1999-00 mainly to Middle East 44.8 per cent (57,760 thousand kg), followed by Sri Lanka 34.5 per cent, Singapore 6.35 per cent, Bangladesh 5.4 per cent and remaining 9 per cent to other countries. Though quantity wise exports increased by 89 per cent as compare to last year 98-99, but there is a sharp decline of 20.4 per cent value wise due to competition.

DATE Large share of fresh dates are being exported to the USA (31.16 percent) followed by India (24.76%), Canada (13.3 per cent), UK (6.9 per cent), Denmark (5.6 per cent), Germany (4.7%), and remaining to other parts of the world. Fresh date’s exports are not relying on one market. Fresh dates earned $3.330 million in 99-2000. Whereas, export of dry dates dependent on Indian market, as 92.6 per cent exports of total exports of dry dates goes to India. 

The numbers, reported by the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, show a couple of things. Firstly, exports of fruits and vegetable are far lower than the country’s potential. Secondly, the average per ton export price is low. And thirdly, since this is in continuation of a trend, more needs to be invested in revamping and modernizing our horticulture sector. In the entire last fiscal year, combined export earnings of fruits and vegetables rose to around $641.7m from $565.8m a year ago, or just around 12%. Meanwhile, export volumes grew to 15.85m tons from 12.78m tons or 24%.

To increase the production we need either to increase the area under fruit cultivation or to go for modern orchard establishment i.e. high-density plantings and best management practices. A demographic change towards urbanization reduces the size of rural workforce, agriculture will also need to adopt new forms of mechanization and shift to land use intensification, with all of its connotations. High agricultural production assures food security and agriculture surpluses for export at competitive prices require efficient development and utilization of agricultural resources. Cost effectiveness in the production of various crops brings built‐in competitive edge to low productivity attributed farmers. Farm operations being time specific, demand precision to optimize the efficiencies of Economic Survey 2009‐10 24 agricultural input for higher productivity. The future changes of free market economy and faster globalization have further necessitated modernization of agricultural machinery through transfer of latest, efficient, and cost effective technologies to the farming community.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Efficient use of scarce agriculture resources and accelerated agricultural mechanization are, therefore, vital to meet the challenges of future scenario that need a comprehensive strategy, need to change the traditional growing pattern to modern growing classification like Greenhouse production, using of sensors system to anticipate issues of plant, soil and environment impacts and to achieve local and international buyer standards and regulation.  

 

CASE STUDY FIG PRODUCTION, PROBLEMS, AND PROFITABILTY

The Fig is being grown as tree (260-435 plants per acre); however results of early trials at National Agriculture Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad have shown that it can be grown as a low height plant in high density plantation as high as strawberry or cotton; in rows (row to row 2 ft and plant to plant 1 ft.; 21780 plants per acre)  Every year after leaf fall (December-January) before spring sprouting if plantation is severely pruned like Falsa (Grewia asiatica L.) leaving 3-6 inch of stem from ground level; one can get 60,000 to 70,000 cuttings (of pruned wood) from an acre for nursery planting. Fruiting commences in less than a year. Over 5 tons of fresh fruit per acre can be harvested as spring crop from the pruned plants every year.

Production, Import and Export

Total area under Figs in Pakistan is 162 ha with 741 tons of production (fresh fruit). Pakistan is an importer of dry figs as the production is not sufficient to cater the needs of growing population. In 2007-08, Pakistan imported dry figs 217 tones worth PKR 4.5 million Turkey, Iran, and Afghanistan being the main source of imported fig.

Value-added Products

Figs can be eaten fresh or dried, used in jam-making and pickling. Most commercial production is in dried or otherwise processed, since the ripe fruit does not transport

Well, and once picked does not keep well. Food products containing figs include fig paste, fig concentrate, fig powder, fig nuggets, and diced and sliced figs. The natural flavor of figs can be preserved in fig jam, preserves, and paste. To make fig concentrate, which replaces sucrose and corn syrup, the water is extracted from the figs. Chopped, diced, and sliced figs are incorporated into food products. When dried, figs are added to cookies, bars, and snacks. Besides high-quality figs for fresh consumption, a small number of figs are canned. The dried seeds in figs contain oil that is 30 percent fatty acids. This edible oil can be used as a lubricant. The natural humectants in figs make them a beneficial ingredient in such health and beauty products as soap, moisturizers, fragrance, and candles. After the fruit harvest, fig leaves are plucked and used for fodder in India. In southern France, fig leaves are used as a source of perfume material; the leaves create a woody-mossy scent

Fig trees can be successfully grown in a heated greenhouse – either when directly planted into the soil or when grown in a container in a greenhouse. It’s worth bearing in mind that it can be quite expensive to heat a greenhouse for the sake of a fig tree, and there’s a lot of watering involved, so before you commit to growing a fig tree inside your greenhouse to take into consideration the pros and cons. One good method of getting over these issues is to grow a fig tree in a container instead, as this can be then be moved outside in the warmer months and both you and your fig tree will get the best of both worlds.

The plants can grow to a considerable height – between 2m height and 3.5m wide – and benefit from having something to grow up against, such as a wall, fence, or canes going up the side of a greenhouse. In order to get the best from the plants, plant them 20cm away from the wall, so that they’ve got space to fan out and be trained up and along the wall. The economic life of the plant is about 8-10 years, the yield increases with increase in canopy size of the tree and stabilizes during eighth year, and production of per tree 18 KG in year mean number of plant in acre are 260 x 18 kg = 4680 kg or 4.866 tons as compared to 3 to 4 tons in open field. Price of fig in retail PKR 2000 per kg mean 4680 x 2000= PKR 9,360,000. International Market price is GBP 9.49 per pound or PKR 3823 per KG.

Similarly the cultivation of Papaya is another profitable fruit tree in greenhouse. According one of progressive farmer Mr. Ch., Zulfiqar Ali, he is growing papaya in Gujranwala since 6 years. According to him that he is earning PKR 6,600,000 from 1200 plants in one acre in open field. According to one study 1800 plant can be grow in one acre in 20-30 gallon pots in greenhouse and gain one papaya melon weight up to 9 kg or and 40 kg per plant. In that case 1800 plants x 40 kg = 72000 kg fruit are being produced. 72000 kg x market price PKR 137/kg = PKR 9,864,000.00 mean 25 % more profit. Now he is preparing to export the papaya fruit GCC countries.

Pineapple is profitable fruit tree to be cultivate in greenhouse and also in Dutch Bucket hydroponics system 25 % faster and 30 % more than to soil, PINEAPPLE is small tree cultivate and grow in lines with the distance of 6 FT and row to row should be 5-6 FT. 200 flower produce 1 fruit in one time. Each tree can be produce 2-3 fruits in his lifetime of 28 month. Each fruit weight is 1 kg to 1.5 kg normally. Economics prospect are very high. 1225 trees in one acre, 1225 x 1.5 kg = 1837 kg and 3 fruit in lifetime = 1837 x 3= 5512 kg in 28 month per acre. 5512 kg x PK 350/kg = PK 1,929,200 in 28 month.

Custard Apple is also considering a profitable fruit tree in green, it is low cost production. Custard Apple can grow in 4 x4 lines and around 250 plants can grow in one acre and total estimated cost is PK 49748 per year only and production of plant  is 35-50 kg or 9.5 to 11 tons per acre after 3 years and ever year, as compare to cost, the income is level higher. In Pakistan custard apple price is PK 800 kg that means if production is availed 11000 kg x PK 800 /kg = PK 8,800,000.00 .

The recommended Exotic Tropical fruits tree for Zone 10.

Apple, Bananas, Oranges, Lemon, Lime, Lychee, Pineapple, Grapes, Dates, Fig, Loquat, Papaya, Pomegranates, Plum, Peach ,Sapodilla, Guava, Jujube Chinese, Sour sop, kumquat fruit, Memey , jackfruit , and 200 varieties of fruits.

GREENHOUSE CONCEPT

Concept of Greenhouse  

 Greenhouses are frames of the inflated structure covered with a transparent material in which crops are grown under controlled environment conditions. … The primary environmental parameter traditionally controlled is temperature, usually providing heat to overcome extreme cold conditions. Greenhouse Technology is the technique of providing favorable environmental conditions to the plants. It is rather used to protect the plants from adverse climatic conditions such as wind, cold, precipitation, excessive radiation, extreme temperature, insects, and diseases.

 The origin of life on earth explains the basic concept of the greenhouse. Before the origin of any living organism on the earth, the temperature of earth was around -18°C due to the absence of an atmosphere between earth and sun. Various gases namely nitrogen (N), carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), oxygen (O2), nitrous oxide (N2O), etc. available inside earth came out through spaces between plates of earth and formed a porous layer around earth, known as atmosphere. The newly formed atmosphere around the earth had a unique property that it absorbed ultraviolet and far-infrared radiation coming from the sun and allowed only short-wavelength (0.3-3 μm) radiation emitted by the sun to reach the earth surface. Further, the atmosphere did not allow long-wavelength (> 3.0 μm) radiation emitted by the earth. Hence, the trapped thermal energy raised the temperature of the earth and air between earth and atmosphere. The rise of the temperature of the air is known as the greenhouse effect. According to Encyclopedia 2000, the greenhouse effect for the environment is defined as:

Greenhouse Effect – the term for the role the atmosphere plays in insulating and warming the earth’s surface. The atmosphere is largely transparent to incoming solar radiation. When this radiation strikes the earth’s surface, some of it is absorbed, thereby warming the earth’s surface. The surface of the earth emits some of this energy back out in the form of infrared radiation. As this infrared radiation travels through the atmosphere, much of it is absorbed by atmospheric gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous

oxide, and water vapor. These gases then re-emit infrared radiation, some of which strikes and is absorbed by the earth. The absorption of infrared energy by the atmosphere and the earth called the greenhouse effect, maintains a temperature range on earth that is hospitable to life.

 

Advantages of Green House

A greenhouse is a closed space for the cultivation of fruits and vegetables, consists of a structure that support a translucent outer shell, glass, polycarbonate sheet or plastic sheet 100 to 200 micron. It is a protected place where you can control environmental factors for optimal plant growth. 

1- Good distribution of light inside the greenhouse. The greenhouse covers can change the direction of the sun’s rays, thus evenly distributed over the entire surface, benefiting the entire greenhouse and avoiding the sun’s rays directly to the plant.

2- Energy efficiency. Takes advantage of the environmental conditions, such as optimizing the heat inside the greenhouse.

3- Control of microclimate. One of the main advantages of a greenhouse is to control and establish the optimal environment for cultivation. You can adjust the temperature, humidity, lighting, etc.

4- Protection against diseases, pests and other vermin. Another advantage of a greenhouse is that it is very difficult to enter as it is a closed space.

5- Excellent ventilation. You can ventilate the greenhouse quickly, thanks to their zenithal or side windows.

6- Optimum sealing against rain and air.

7- Increased production. This is a great advantage of a greenhouse, can intensify production due to weather conditions, can accelerate the growth of the plants and also allows a greater amount of crop on the surface. According to analyses 10-12 % higher growth rate is through the greenhouse.

8- Production off-season. Thanks to the environmental control of the greenhouse can produce off-season; therefore we will have a better sale price and a continuous supply of the product.

9- Production in regions with adverse weather conditions.

10- Ability to grow all year. You can get more than one crop cycle per year and different species of plants.

11- Optimizes the use of other technologies to facilitate the management of climate (heating, humidification, shade screens or saving energy, etc.)

According to one survey, 30 % of crop losses are reported during harvesting and unfavorable weather condition. In Baluchistan, KPK and northern area fruits orchards are facing heavy losses due to weather and unavailability of water. Cultivation in Greenhouse is world know and recommended phenomena and farmers are getting more production and saved water, fertilizer and pesticide expenditure. Greenhouse Production cost is remaining miner as compared to production and sale.

No doubt, mechanization of agriculture is increasing in Pakistan, but in most of the areas, the old implements are still being used for agricultural production. Old and orthodox techniques of production cannot increase the production according to international levels.

 

HOW TO MANAGE FRUIT GREENHOUSE & NEEDS

In a greenhouse, fruiting trees, shrubs, and vines may be grown in the ground or in containers. Growing fruit trees in a greenhouse rewards framer with fresh fruit, no matter how frightful the weather gets outside. Greenhouse fruits growing phenomena is in introduced 19th century in England for oranges growth. Growers can grow several kinds of fruit trees in the greenhouse, including pears, peaches, bananas, oranges, and tropical fruits that appreciate year-round warmth. Climate control greenhouse granting protects from the blossom and fruiting from spring frosts, pests and extreme weather, birds as the fruit matures easier. Greenhouse is ultimately helping producer to produce superior fruits.

  • Fruit trees may also be grown in the unheated greenhouse in, soil, pots, tubs, or boxes. The restriction of the roots induces early fruiting and keeps the trees small. Containerized stone fruitsmay be kept year-round in the greenhouse, or moved into it for a little as a few weeks to protect blossoms from killing frigidities in spring or to extend the growing season for late-ripening varieties. But some heat is necessary. The blossom and newly-set fruitlets of all hardy fruits are susceptible to frost. In an unheated greenhouse sun-heat is stored up during the daytime so that the average temperature is well above that prevailing outside. Further, the occupants of such a greenhouse are not exposed to chilling, growth-inhibiting winds, and these two factors result in earlier blossoming this, of course, increases the risk of frost coinciding with flowering. Just sufficient heating, therefore, must be available to keep the temperature above 32°F (0°C) during the coldest weather. Growing fruit trees in the greenhouse, farmers will need to provide a warm environment plants to thrive. Most fruit trees appreciate temperatures above 50 degrees Fahrenheit (10 0C), including bananas and citrus trees, while tropical fruit trees need temperatures above 60 F (15 0C). For example Citrus trees prefer a humid environment, with light, frequent watering and regular misting.
  • Fruit trees do best in warm weather and mild winters, growing them in greenhouse ensures that tree will received adequate temperature and environment without the problems the tree are facing in outdoor.
  • Although plenty of water will be required in the growing season, water management and fertilizing through automatic controlling system and drainage system of extra water system is must be impeccable. Greenhouse-grown plants (and any plants, for that matter) cannot survive without some form of irrigation. While there are different types of greenhouse irrigation systems are available – including sprinkler and subsurface systems – we use a drip irrigation system because of itsefficiency and accuracy. Drip irrigation is exactly what it sounds like – irrigation administered to a crop through dripper technology. Every plant gets its own dripper tube, which is typically placed in the back corner of the substrate block in which our plants sit.

Drip irrigation is an efficient way to irrigate greenhouse crops – the placement of our dripper tubes makes it easy for our Growers to deliver precise volumes of nutrient water directly to the root systems of our plants.

The Design of Drip irrigation system according to water needs of plant in all seasons. Drip irrigation process uses a pressure compensated drip tube system that releases a specified volume of water once x amount of water pressure is applied to the dripper’s release valve. This allows for water and nutrients to be evenly distributed across our entire crop. Irrigation system is linked with temperatures fluctuate at

different times of the year, efficient operation link with light levels – the more sunlight shining on  plants, the more they generally need to be irrigated for the effective  the process of photosynthesis – light is what activates a plant’s energy creation process, so more light means a plant will start working harder to grow leaves and fruit (which means more elements like water and CO2 are needed if a plant is going to successfully create glucose to feed itself).

  • Automatic ventilation controls the indoor air flow. It gives greenhouse plants with a consistent supply of carbon dioxide. They require this for sugar and oxygen production. The concentrated carbon dioxide will result in bigger leaves and vigorous plant stems. It also increases its potential for early flowering and fruiting.
  • Greenhouses with moisture regulators keep the air humid for peak plant development. With a humid atmosphere, every plant can focus on flowering and fruiting. Plus a moist soil will be less likely to entertain pests and diseases. In really hot weather there is another trick to keep plants cool: damping down. Damping down is the process of raising the humidity inside the greenhouseby wetting hard surfaces such as paths and staging. As the water evaporates, it increases the moisture level of the air, which helps plants to cope with the heat. One of the best methods growers use is a fogging system to regulate humidity and create an ideal setting for plants to grow. Fogging is essentially a visible cloud of water droplets suspended in the air, both cooling and moisturizing the grow environment.
  • Co2 system, CO2concentration in ambient air ranges from 300-500 parts per million (ppm), with a global atmospheric average of about 400 ppm. If you are growing in a greenhouse or indoors, the CO2 levels will be reduced as the plants use it up during photosynthesis. Efficient CO2 generator and controlling system are essential part of greenhouse.
  • Cooling system Fan and Pad Evaporative Cooling Systems. Evaporative cooling, which uses the heat in the air to evaporate water from plants and other wetted surfaces can be used to cool the greenhouseas much as 10 to 20ºF below the outside temperature. … Changing water from the liquid to the vapor phase absorbs considerable heat.
  • Smart Agriculture operates in greenhouse, today smart Agriculture devices change the whole agriculture concept, from growing- harvesting-marketing are control and single handle manageable. In 2020 to 2025 agriculture completely converted /controlled on smart agriculture devices. Through this system Greenhouse climate system, plant growth monitoring, plants fertilizer, water needs can be evaluate and monitor well in time, assess the soil fertility, moisture level can be dedicated, similarly deficiencies and diseases of plant monitor through sensor LoRa wan system.

  • Photosynthesis System, Photosynthesis System is a portable, single-handed tool that measures photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, stomatal conductance, PAR and internal CO­2. Light-weight and durable, the CI-340 was designed for field use. The optional accessory modules allow researchers to control CO2, H2O, temperature, light intensity, and measure chlorophyll fluorescence, while the ten different customized chambers accommodate any leaf size, including conifer needles and cacti. Direct chamber connection to the CO2/H2O gas

Analyzer reduces measurement delay and enables rapid measurement of gas exchange with minimal delays.

  • Energy Preservation is another important need of framers and to manage the cost of production. Solawrap sheet is inbuilt with solar cell in the cover sheet. This sheet is working in highly snow area, windy area and heating area efficiently. This sheet is able to fulfill the energy demand of greenhouse operation.

MULTI-SPAN GREENHOUSE

Multi span Climate control greenhouse is special design as per client requirement and weather conditions semi commercial Multi-span climate greenhouse is one acre in its size, it can be extended up to acres. Best size of commercial green house is 2 ha to 5 ha.

Description

 

 

Details

SIZE

L 210 x Width depend of land size x 14 FT.

Span size

25 FT or 30 FT as per requirement

Centre height

 Normally 22 FT or depend of fruit tree.

One acre

 6-7 span with rainwater drainage (Gutter system)

Types of Multi type

TOP closed and arm side open, left top open, right top open, both side open

Cultivation

Soil and soil less (hydroponic, aeroponic etc.)

Facilitation in green house

Equipped with Cooling Pad, Exhaust Fan, Circulating Fan, Misting and Humidity system and controller, Fertilizers injection system, Drip irrigation to totally automatic watering system, R.O. plant, water Sterilization system, water Filtering system, HIP, HPS and growing UV Lighting system, Smart controlling system along with sensors, Co2, Ozona, oxygen and PLC system, Germination system ,smart Agriculture Sensors system.

ENERGY SAVING SOLUTION

Solarwarp sheet for energy saving.

SALIENT FEATURES OF GREENHOUSE

ITEMS

DETIALS

ONE ACRE SIZE IS VARY IN DIFFERENT PART OF PAKISTAN semi commercial unit.

210 FT X 210 FT OR 210 FT X 198 FT

SQFT

44100 SQFT

DESIGN

MULTI SPAN 30 FT X 210 FT X 7 SPANS

HEIGHT

CENTRE 22 FT

RAIN DRAINAGE SYSTEM

GI GUTTER SYSTEM

GREEN HOUSE STRUCTURE  FOR 80- 12O KMPH WIND

GI PIPE TUBE PILLARS 3” WITH THICKNESS 2MM,ARCH WT 2” WT 2MM, SUPPORT BARS 2” WT 2MM, 25MM WT 2 MM AND 16MM WT 2MM

COVER SHEET, PLOY FLIM OR POLY CARBONATE SHEET

200 MICROON , 5 LAYER

19’ X 81” AND 6MM POLYCARBONATE SHEET AS PER DEMAND OF AREA & WIND PRESSURE & SNOW WEIGHT

ENERY SAVING

SOLARWRAP SHEET According to consumption energy.

SHEET FAXING

PROFILE AND ZIGZAG WIRE

GREEN SHADE

FR, BOTH AUTOMATIC OR MANUL INSIDE OR OUT SIDE GREEN HOUSE AS DEMAND ALONG WITH SIDE WALLS

CIVIL WORK

CONTREATE SIDE WALLS, TUFF TILES FLOORING OR SAND MUD WITH FABRIC SHEET AS PER LEVEL OF LAND.

DOOR

ALUMIUN SLIDING DOOR

VENTILATION & COOLING SYSTEM  FOR 617400 CFM

COOLING PAD, EXHUAST FAN, CIRCULATING FAN

MESTING & FOGGING, AIR PRUFICATION, INSECT SPARY

IMPORTED SYSTEM

FERTILER INJECTION (FRETIGATION SYSTEM)

 

FRENCH OR CHINESE DOZING SYSTEM per BLOCKS

WATER CONTROL SYSTEM

AUTOMATIC WATER CONTROLLING SYSTEM  17 ZONES

NUTIRENT WATER DISTRIBUTION AND STORAGE TANKS

NUTIRENT WATER DISTRIBUTION AND RECYCLING SYSTEM

WATER PUREFICATION SYSTEM

SCAN FILTER, MUD AND SAND CLEANING SYSTEM

RO PLANTS

TO CONTROL TDS LEVEL OF WATER

Cos SYSTEM AND AIR SYSTEM

OXGEN SYSTEM, AIR SYSTEM

INNER SYSTEM

Co2, Ozon,

SMART EQUIPMENT

Plant phenotyping system, photo thesis system, IoT, senor system with monitoring and operation.

 

 

PLANTS GROWING UNITS/POCKETS IN GUTTER SYSTEM

Depend of Fruit tree

 ECONOMIC BENEFITS

Economic benefits are very high, profitability of fruits growth in climate controlled greenhouse are very high, consistence and sustainable and as compared open area cultivation greenhouse growth is much more cost effective and saving of water, fertilizer and very minimal pest/ chemical usage.

ONE ACRE SEMICOMMERCIAL FRUIT TREE CLIMATE CONTROLLED GREENHOUSE

Description

Papaya

Pineapple

Custard apple

FIG

plants

1800

1225

250

260

Fruiting time

 

24-28 month

3 year

 

Fruit per plant

40 KG

4.5 KG

35-50 KG

18 KG

Production  in year

7200 KG

5152 KG

11000 KG

4680 KG

Market price

PK 137/KG

PK 350/KG

PK 800/KG

PK 2000/KG

Calculation

137X 7200

350X 5152

800X 11000

2000X 4680

Revenue

9,864,000

1,803,200

8,800,000

9,360,000

DESCRIPTION

Apple

LemonCitrus

Plum

Malta (oragne)

plants

34

136

100-110

99

Per plant production

400

1500 lemon/tree

50-60 KG

500-1000

production

2666 KG

12000 to 15000 KG

6600 KG

9000 KG 0R 622 BOXES

Market Price

PK 175

PK 80

PK 195

PK 125

 

466,550

850,714

1,293,600

777,500

 EXPENDITURES

Expenditure is varying according to fruits; hereunder we just calculate general expenditure.

Description

Costing

Plant

Varying according to verity

Plantation cost

15660

Production cost 

54100

Packing & Marketing cost

94955

Electric city

28,000

Admin cost

40,000

Total

232,715.00

 FIG FINANCAIL REVIEW

Description

Year 1-2

Year3-4

Year 5-6

Year 7-8

Year 9-10

 

Revenue

9,360,000

10,296,000

11,325,600

12,458,160

13,703,976

 

Expenditure

255,986

238,755

262,630

288,893

317,782

 

G/profit

9,104,014

10,057,245

11,062,970

12,169,267

13,386,194

 

Market commission

936,000

1,029,600

1,132,560

1,245816

1,370,397

 

Admin cost

125,000

131,250

137,812

144,702

151,937

 

Before Tax

8,043,014

8,896,395

9,792,598

10,778,749

11,863,860

 

Taxes

1,228,952

1,356,959

1,491,389

1,639,312

1,802,079

 

Net /profit

6,814,062

7,539,436

8,301,209

9,139,437

10,061,781

 

 CONSTRUCTION COST OF MULTI SPAN PROJECT:

CONSTRUCTION COST

 

 

Skelton 3” WT 2MM, ARCH 2” WT 2MM, SUPPORT BARS 25MM WT 2MM 16 MM WT 2MM (multi span)

3,198,899.00

 

COVERSHEET 200 MICROON

950,000.00

 

Mesh sheet

165,000

4,313,899.00

MISTING AND FOGGING SYSTEM (AUTOMATIC)

 

 

Profile file and zigzag wire

175,000.00

175,000.00

LOCAL OR CHINESE

225,000.00

225,000.00

COOLING AND VENTILATION SYSTEM (AUTOMATIC)

 

 

COOLING PADS, EXHUAST FAN, CIRCULATING FAN, HUMIDITY CONTROLING SYSTEM (AUTOMATIC )

8,77,300.00

8,77,300.00

HUMIDITY TUBs

125,000.00

125,000.00

DRIP IRRIGATION COST

166,000.00

166,000.00

CO2 system

260,000.00

260,000.00

CIVIL WORK  PKR 45 FT X 44100 SQFT

275,500.00

275,500.00

MISC

100,000.00

100,000.00

 

 

 

SMART AGRICULTURE EQUIPMENT

AS PER REQUIRMENT & DEMAND

LABOUR COST

325,000.00

325,000.00

TOTAL:

 

6,392,824.00

 

 

 

SERVICES CHARGES 6 % OF TOTAL COST

 

383,569.00

 

 

 

.ABOVE CACULATION BASED USD 1= PKR 160, USD FLECTION MIGHT BE MINUS – PLUS IN COST

  • ALL GOVT DUTIES AND TAXES WILL ADD-UP ACCORDINGLY
  • REPLACMENT OF EQUIPMENT
  • 75 % Advance and 15 % in middle of job and 10 % on completion of job.

DESCRIPTION

DETAILS

REPLACMENT OF COVER SHEET IN YEARS

4

REPLACMENT green shade

6

REPLACMENT OF COOLING PADS

5

PROJECT FINANCING Description

DETAILS

Total project financing

PKR 6,625,324.00

Running finance

217,500.00

Owner equity

50 %

Bank equity if bank is involved

50 %

Markup

Interest rate Agri bank 6 % interest rate % 12.50

Tenure is payback (years )

5

  • PROJECT ECONOMICS

DESCRIPTION

DETAILS

INTERNAL RATE OF RETURN (IRR)

32 %

PAYBACK PERIOD (Yrs)

2.2

NET PRESENT VALUE (NPV) Rs.

13629010

Operational cost

20-23 %

  • The above tables shows internal rate of return, payback period and net present value. Return on investment and its profitability are highly dependent on the entrepreneur having some practical knowledge about agriculture, framing, technology know how, operational capacity of staff and market knowledge. Selection of high quality seeds, fertilizer, supplements and vegetables cultivation.
  • KEY ASSUSPTIONS

DESCRITION (Operating cost assumption)

DETAILS

Administration benefits expenses

05% of admin expense

Communication expenses

 

21,000 annual expense

Travelling expense

35,000 annual expense

Promotional expense on social media

75,000

Professional fees (legal, audit, consultant)

05% of revenue

Deprecation

5 %

Office expenses

40,000

Office vehicles insurance rate

10%

Depreciation on green house and equipment’s

33 %

Depreciation of vehicle

20 %

Operating costs growth rate

5 %

Accounts receivable cycle

25 days

Raw material inventory

06 months

Amortization of pre operating expenses

05 years

Description of production cost assumption

Details

Cost of goods sold growth rates

 10 %

Operating cost growth rate

10 %

Fruit  market expense

10 %

Farm to market trip cost

PKR8000x 3= 24000 per trip load 14 tons

No of trips 12

Description of Revenue assumption

 

Sales prices growth rate

10 %

Production capacity utilization (1-10)

100 %

Days operation

365 days

Financial assumptions

 

Project life

10

Structure grantees

10-12 year

Debt

50 %

Equity 

50 %

Interest rate on debt

20 %

Debt tenure

5

Debt payment years

10

DUA ENTERPRISES

www.duaenterprises.net

shoaibdua2009@gmail

 

PRE-FEASIBILITY HYDROPONIC

CLIMATE CONTROL GREEN HOUSE AND HYDROPONIC FARMING

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Climate control green house and Hydroponic recognize most modern growing technology in the world today. This technology transformed conventional agriculture in to agriculture business. This technology is enable bulk production in all seasons. This is most economical, water saving and pest less and free from land hazardous due to soil less production system. Plants are hanging and grow in nutrient water in hydroponic system.

The proposed project is a medium sized climate controlled greenhouse hydroponic growing unit. This unit is one ACRE (210 FT x 210 FT or 44100 SQFT) is proposed to be growth of particularly four different vegetables like tomatoes, capsicum, cucumber and strawberry in NFT Dutch Bucket or Gutter system.

The numbers of plantation each year are 18200 more than one 1 hector conventional pattern of cultivation system. The estimated production would be 20-25 kg per SQFT or 151650 Kgs of tomatoes, Capsicum 25-30 kg per SQFT or 181900 kg , Cucumber 20 to 25 kg per SQFT 151650 kg  and  Strawberry 7+7 kg per SQFT or 84924 kg  respectively in ideal Pakistani conditions.

Complete adherence to best agronomic practices is critical to the success of this project. Therefore, technical knowledge and experience of the entrepreneur and market access and knowledge, availability of recommend seeds, nutrients, inputs and required  PH, TDS, PMM level of water  and continuous availability of electric city are absolutely necessary.

The present economic condition and projection of economic growth up to 2.4 % of GDP in manufacturing large scale and small scales industries, dollar fluctuation impacts and duty and taxation ratio on imports , registration efforts on trading  and services sector the Agricultural is the only taxation FREE area of business(at present). Govt support programs in agriculture area, low interest rate on loaning facilities, demand and supply gap and duties on vegetables (approx. 4 $ billion imports) provided a chance for progressive farmers and business institutions to invest in agriculture sector and fulfill the demand and supply gap and export theirs agriculture product to GCC, Russia, central Asia countries and tailor the opportunity around CPEC. China will not establish their own growing units in Pakistan but also import agriculture products in near future. In that favorable prospective agriculture will be played locomotive role in business as a profitable venture.

The cost of construction is little bit higher.  The project NPV is project at 68,285,727.00 with an IRR of 64 % and payback period is 3 years.

Disclaimer: The information memorandum is to introduce the subject matter and provide a general idea and information on the said project and prospective of future agriculture business. Although the material included in this document are based on experienced practicing farmer’s information’s, from authentic research papers of world known researchers, Dua Enterprises own experiences, world known our principal experiences and Data/information gathered from various reliable sources: Although, due care and diligence has been taken to compile this document, the contained information may vary due to any change in any concerned factors, and the actual results may differ substantially from the presented information.

INTRODUCTION OF DUA ENTERPRISES

Dua Enterprises

Dua Enterprises is commerce in Landscaping, Horticulture, Automatic Irrigation System, Green House, hydroponics, Aquaponics and Aeroponics systems and in alternative energy with aim of enriching of environment, facilitate. Gardening dream in to luxurious lawn and backyard garden, accomplish the needs of

green Pakistan and familiarize counter strategy and induction of technology to cater new emerging challenges of water shortage, power shortage and food security.

Dua Enterprises is one of the leading Greenhouse and hydroponic, Aquaponics and Aeroponics Construction Company having ability to use most advanced technology to construct system for all kind of growers from all over Pakistan as per their requirement. With our well experienced staff we designs, and construct Greenhouses & all kind of hydroponic units considering the Pakistan environment and topography and known for its technological excellence in this field.

We provide one stop solution for greenhouse and all type growing methods from designs to construction and execution and training of staff, we also provide smart agriculture solution with modern LoRa wan technology, IOT and monitoring equipment’s.

Dua Enterprises is associated with world know companies, Hortimax Green-tech Holland, Ridder Drive Systems B.V. Holland ,Hydroponic Technology USA, AYS PROJE TAAHHÜT SAN. TİC. A.Ş. Turkey greenhouse services China and SEMTECH. Our principal not only assisted us for technology/ material but also participated physically in construction of projects and joint venture in GCC countries.

We assist our clients in construction of greenhouse, hydroponic and drip irrigation, after sale services, training of concern staff, facilitation in inputs, seeds , nutrients and fertilizers , financial institutions /bank loans , marketing and sale of products in local market and foreign market specially Russia, GCC and China.

PURPOSE OF THE DOCUMENT

The objective of the pre-feasibility study is primarily to facilitate potential entrepreneurs, progressive farmers in project identification for investment and future prospective of modern agriculture emergence as an industry and its growth, profitability, sustainability as a profitable venture. The project pre-feasibility may form the basis of an important investment decision and in order to serve this objective, the document/study covers various aspects of project concept development, start-up, and production methodology, marketing, finance and business management.

Brief Description of project & products

The obvious reason to grow greenhouse vegetables, flowers, and herbs is to have crops at a time of year when they can’t be grown outdoors. Out-of-season tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, eggplant, lettuce, basil, and other vegetables command high prices in some markets. Season extension is just one of the advantages gained from greenhouse growing. Protected crops are less apt to be damaged by wind, rain, and hail so the percentage of marketable products is higher. Yield is often higher as well, if you can provide optimum growing conditions for each crop. Greenhouses protect crops from many diseases, particularly those that are soilborne and splash onto plants in the rain. And greenhouse crops may be protected from common field pests. Of course, greenhouse crops have their own particular problems such as foliar disease, aphids, and whiteflies, so vigilance is still required.

Hydroponics is a production method where the plants are grown in a nutrient solution rather than in soil. The greenhouse and its environment control system are the same whether plants are grown with hydroponics. The greenhouse needs to be suitable for production with adequate heat and ventilation and the ability to manage both, and clean glazing for maximum light. The difference between conventional production and growing hydroponically is the support system for growing plants and the method of supplying water and nutrients.

The main advantages of the greenhouses and hydroponic are

  • Good distribution of light inside the greenhouse. The greenhouse covers have the ability to change the direction of the sun’s rays, thus evenly distributed over the entire surface, benefiting the entire greenhouse and avoiding the sun’s rays directly to the plant.
  • Energy efficiency. Takes advantage of the environmental conditions, such as optimizing the heat inside the greenhouse.
  • Control of microclimate. One of the main advantages of a greenhouseis to control and establish the optimal environment for cultivation. You can adjust the temperature, humidity, lighting, etc.
  • Protection against diseases, pests and other vermin. Another advantage of a greenhouseis that it is very difficult to enter as it is a closed space.
  • Excellent ventilation. You can ventilate the greenhouse quickly, thanks to their zenithal or side windows.
  • Optimum sealing against rain and air.
  • Increased production. This is a great advantage of a greenhouse, can intensify production due to weather conditions, can accelerate the growth of the plants and also allows a greater amount of crop on the surface.
  • Production off-season. Thanks to the environmental control of the greenhouse can produce off-season, therefore we will have a better sale price and a continuous supply of the product.
  • Production in regions with adverse weather conditions.
  • Ability to grow all the year. You can get more than one crop cycle per year and different species of plants.
  • Optimizes the use of other technologies to facilitate the management of climate (heating, humidification, shade screens or saving energy, etc.)
  • When Compared To Traditional Soil-Grown Crop Production, Hydroponics Has the Following Advantages: Up to 90% more efficientuse of water. Production increases 3 to 10 times in the same amount of space. Many crops can be produced twice as fast in a well-managed hydroponic system.
  • Simply put, hydroponicsuses mineral nutrient solutions to feed plants that are growing in water, so no soil is used in the process. … So, is hydroponic farming profitable? The answer is,Yes. If you do your research on the most profitable plants to grow and sell, you should have no problem making money.
  • Costis one of the biggest disadvantages of hydroponic gardening. Both upfront and operational costs tend to be higher for hydroponics than they are for normal soil gardens. … Larger-scale hydroponic systems tend to be more costeffective than small-scale gardens

2.PRESENT VEGETABLE GROWTH AND DEMANDIN PAKISTAN.

Vegetables constitute an integral component of the cropping pattern but the increasing pressure on food and cash crops has limited the area under vegetables to about 0.62 million ha, which is 3.1% of the total cropped area. Vegetables fit well in most farming systems due to shorter maturity period. Vegetable crops are very important due to their higher yield potential, higher return and high nutritional value and suitability for small land holding farmers. Vegetables provide proteins, minerals and vitamins required for human nutrition. In Pakistan, the daily per capita intake is low, being about 100 grams compared to the recommended consumption of about 285 grams.  Mean every person is using 185 grams less than requirements, In view of population increase, land degradation and water scarcity, there is a need to substantially increase vegetable production in the years to come and to attain self-sufficiency as well as to increase the exportable surplus.

PAKISTAN AGRICULTURE

Agriculture constitutes the largest sector of Pakistan’s economy. This sector contributes 21.4% to its GDP, provides 40% employment and 60% exports. The horticulture sub-sector (Fruits and vegetables etc.) contributes 11% to the total value addition in agriculture sector. The current national horticulture exports are about 400 million US$ (2011-12). Export of major vegetables is presented, indicator were not favorable as compared to India or another Asia countries  

Pakistan is ranked on 34th position in annual tomato production in the world. Country’s total annual requirement is more than 890,434 tonnes, and is grown on an area of 62,930 hectare. Various researches has shown big gap between supply and demand. This gap is filled by importing tomatoes from India. According survey of Pakistan, present we are importing   30-32 percent tomatoes from India. In 2014-15 import volume was 190450954 kgs of PKR 8861454 Thousand and in 2015-16 import volume was 124082215 kg of PKR 5734881 thousand and over all import of tomatoes in this two year 2014-15 223284909 kgs and in 2015-2016 233245715 kgs.

Similarly Capsicum or Bell pepper or Hot pepper (Capsicum annum L.) is a crop of Solanaceae family and its genus is Capsicum. It is also known as green pepper or shimla mirch . It has a large variety and its production showed increasing trend in recent years.  But the production is very low as per demand.  Emerging hospitality industry (Pizza and fast food sector) is forced to import colored capsicum. Despite that it provides vitamin A, C and E and is useful against flu-colds. It is a source of thiamine, beta carotene, folic acid and vitamin B6. It is used in different shapes like green, condiments, spices, pickles and sauces. It gives special beauty, flavor and taste in eating items. Capsicum demand in GCC  and many other country as source of flavor and for health purposes. In 2015-16 import volume of import was 69447 thousand kg and 21945 thousand kg in 2014-15 from India, China, Indonesia, Kuwait and Thailand.

Cucumber is another vegetable largely consumed , but its production is not sufficient, farmer mostly cultivate in Kharif season below chat revealed that cucumber was cultivate in 3381 hectares and production were only 54288 tonnes and in the same year Pakistan import 1362296 kg of PKR 56309 thousand in 2015-16 .

Area under vegetables- Pakistan                                                   Hectares

Vegetables

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

2014-15

2015-16

Tomatoes in Kharif

17297

17007

17336

16903

17116

Tomatoes in Rabi

39918

37049

39880

43768

45420

Cucumber in kharif

3397

3499

3528

3426

3381

Production

Tonnes

Tomatoes in kharif

144675

142604

145872

142113

142462

4Tomatoes in rabi

433128

431448

453716

423930

444649

Cucumber in kharif

48535

49947

50164

52766

54288

Production per hectares

Tonnes

Tomatoes  rabi

10

11

11

9.7

9.8

Cucumber kharif

14

14.3

14.2

15.4

16

EXPORT

Qty=Kgs value= thousand RS.

Strawberry

     

619

141

Tomatoes to Afghanistan

     

7694400 kgs

25541198 kgs

Tomatoes to Maldives

2200 kgs

Tomatoes to UAE

3510 kgs

IMPORTS

Strawberry

   

8540 kgs

QTY=Kgs value=thousand RS

27342 kgs

Tomatoes  fresh and chilled

     

233245713 kg

Cucumber

   

615534 kgs

1362296 kg

Capsicum

   

21945 kgs

21945 kgs

Above chat has shown the potential for hydroponic farming in Pakistan.

Local industries consumption and value addition

India and Bangladesh are potential exporter of fresh vegetables to GCC, European countries and earning more through value addition. Bangladesh is earning TK 237356 thousand per hectare from cowpea, snake gourd, and bitter gourd while farming cost per hectare is TK 104,644.

 According Prof. Dr. Faqir Muhammad Anjum Agriculture Faisalabad University the size of global processed food industry is estimated to be valued around USD 3.5 trillion despite that reality only 6 % of processed foods are traded across borders compared to 16 % of major bulk agriculture.

Furthermore Food processing industry is the 2nd largest industry in Pakistan fruits and vegetables processing units are 155 and processing of 20-40 % fruits and vegetables, but they only processed 27 % food and 16 % workers employed in this sector, according one estimation 169 million consumers market of Pakistan and average consumer is spending 42 % due change of lifestyle in recent year. Retail sales of processed foods is expanding by 10 % per year and currently are estimated at about USD 1.4 billion, of which imported products account for 325 million USD. Supermarkets are gaining in popularity as a shopping venue and now account for about 10% of all retail food sales, in addition to that Pakistan now hosts numerous western- style fast food chains reflecting a rising popularity with such eating style.

According to one study 400 tons tomatoes consumed in tomato paste industry in one Pakistan industries and 70 % sales in local market and 30 % export sales. A large number of fruit and vegetable processing entities are in operation both in organized sector and informal sub-sector. Major processors are Shezan International Ltd., Mitchell’s Fruit Farms Ltd., Ahmed Food Industries (Private) Ltd., Nestle Milkpak Limited, S.A. Rehman & Co., Benz Industries Ltd., Rafhan Best Foods Limited and Hamdard Fruit Products. According to the estimates of Export Promotion Bureau (EPB), at present, the capacity for the Production of fruit juices/preserves, canned fruits, tomato products, syrups, squashes and processed vegetables are estimated at about 100,000 tons per annum. In addition to the local market, the markets of Afghanistan and Central Asian Republics can be effectively catered from Pakistan. Pakistan is a member of both the Economic Co-operation Organization (ECO) and the South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation (SAARC), which further expands the potential of the target market enabling the establishment of economic size fruits and vegetables processing plants for industrial activity.

Vegetable and Fruit juice industry has become one of the world’s major agriculture based businesses. Pakistan is presently exporting processed vegetable and fruit products worth US$ 3 million which is 0.06% of the total existing world market of US$ 5 billion.

Local vegetables & fruits processing market still has room for further expansion. Per capita consumption is still very low as compared to developed countries. For example, US consumption of tomato paste per capita is 30 kg per year, EU countries 5 Source: Federal Bureau of Statistics Pakistan Pre-Feasibility Study Tomato Paste and Fruit Pulp PREF-41/March, 2007/Rev.2 9 consume 15 kg per capita, and Turkey consumes 1 Kg Per capita. As compared to these figures per capita consumption in Pakistan is negligible. It shows that there is still big potential for demand from the local market, which is expected to rise with the passage of time. Introduction of vegetable and fruit processing facilities in the country can contribute in reducing the dependence of local industry on imported fruit pulps and processed vegetables.

The markets for vegetable/fruit processed products are Local Market: According to estimates about 95% of the processed products (puree, paste, pulps, jams, jelly and juices) are sold in the local market. The proposed project has very wide market for processors, hotel industry and retail sellers of tomato and fruit products.  Export Market: There is great potential of vegetable/fruit processed products in Middle East, Far East, UK, European Countries, USA and Malaysia.

Major tomatoes importer countries

Year 2004  figure in tonnes

USA

1126683

GERMANY

614714

FRANCE

435155

UK

334684

RUSSIA

207755

SAUDI ARABIA

253548

NETHER LANDS

226318

CANDA

166295

SPAIN

68056

UAE

77872

Retail Supply of Tomato Paste Demand of tomato paste and fruits pulp exists in the Pakistani market. Major portion of the produce is sold as intermediary products and only a small portion is processed and sold as tomato paste/puree in the retail market. Only the leading food processors have branded products in the market. 4.3 Growth, Trends and Target Customers an annual growth of 5 to 10% is expected in the light of discussions and survey conducted. The target market of tomato paste and fruit pulp is as follows:

  1. Food processors: Vegetable and fruit processors all over the world now prefer to purchase quality paste from the open market instead of self-production, resultantly diversifying them to add more products into their product line.
  2. Hotels and Restaurants
  3. Export market in Middle East, Malaysia and European Countries.
  4. Working women
  5. Households run by working women.
  6. In International market Rotterdam in Holland has emerged as a trading hub for mango pulp/puree in Europe and from where mango pulp/puree is being supplied to many other parts of Europe. On the basis of interviews with some of the representatives of the processors & hotels, following processors are the potential buyers of tomato paste/puree and fruit pulp as raw material for their intermediary products:
  • Ahmed Foods ,§ Shangrila Foods , § Mitchell’s Fruit , § Rafhan Best Foods
  • Shezan International , § Nestle Milk Pak , § S. A. Rehman, § National Foods
  • Tops Fruit , § Salman Food ,
  • Hotels & Fast Food Restaurants like PC & Avari, § KFC, Pizza Hut, McDonald, Salt & Pepper, etc.

And many more small industries having capacity 400 tonnes to 10,000 tonnes, Specific data for paste and pulp production and its demand in local market is not available. However, the present production capacity of Tomato, Canned Vegetables & Food Products is approximately 100,000 Tons per annum as reported by EPB. The existing processors foresee no change in supply. The products of the proposed project will have no difficulty in penetrating in the market, because of the increased demand due to the following reasons:

  1. Increasing portion of working women.
  2. Changed recipes for cooking by the housewives.
  3. Preference by the processors to buy intermediary products instead of in-house manufacturing.
  4. Expansion of fast food industry in the country.

Similarly Chips and Nimko industry demand and consummation are very high but consummation data is not available. But overall situation and growing demand insist for more investment and increase production of vegetable in Pakistan.

OPPORTUNITY AROUND CHINA PAKISTAN ECONOMIC CORRIDOOR (CPEC) & ONE BELT, ONE ROAD

Outline of CPEC is clearly indicating that future agriculture will be totally changed; conventional pattern of cultivation will not help fulfill the demand and supply gap. Similarly there is possibility that conventional cultivation pattern will be terminated or replaced by cash crops.

According to reports published in Newspaper special and particular article published in “DAWN” Heavily subsided Chinese agriculture companies’ wants to establish their own farms and will establish processing centers to avoid 50% losses in poor harvesting and transportation. Chinese Govt and Chinese Development Banks are offering plans to Chinese entrepreneurs to build a mechanism with govt of Pakistan.

Xinjiang Production and construction Corp to bring mechanism as well as scientific technique in livestock breeding, development of hybrid varieties and precision  irrigation to Pakistan. These all efforts lodged for the development of their largely populated KASHGAR prefecture which is suffered poverty and occurrence 50 %. The prefecture’s total output in agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery amounted to just 5 billion USD.  According to that Prefecture plan to uplift large part of KASHGAR will bring opportunity of Pakistan agriculture in future.

Chinese wants to establish NPK fertilizer plant with capacity of 800,000 tonnes per year, two demonstration process plants of milk with capacity of 200,000 tonnes, also establish high yield farms in 6500 acres in Punjab. Vegetable process plant with annual output of 20,000 in Islamabad, fruits juice and jam plant of 10,000 tons and grain processing plant of 1 million tons. Similarly they will establish nationwide logistic network, warehousing and large scale distribution network, which is enhance after completion of GWADAR port and road network in 2026-2030. All these brief information indicates the future of agriculture in Pakistan.

FUTURE OF SUCCESSFUL AGRICULTURE ENTERPENUARS

The present economic condition and projection of economic growth up to 2.4 % of GDP in manufacturing large scale and small scales industries, dollar fluctuation impacts and duty and taxation ratio on imports , registration efforts on trading  and services sector the Agricultural is the only taxation FREE area of business(at present). Govt support programs in agriculture area, low interest rate on loaning facilities, demand and supply gap and duties on vegetables (approx. 4 $ billion imports) provided a chance for progressive farmers and business institutions to invest in agriculture sector and fulfill the demand and supply gap and export theirs agriculture product to GCC, Russia, central Asia countries and tailor the opportunity around CPEC. China will not establish their own growing units in Pakistan but also import agriculture products in near future. In those favorable prospective agriculture will be played locomotive role in business as a profitable venture. In order to that number of opportunities can be listed but few are these:

  • To fulfill 185grams present gap of per person basic nutrition need. This is 187 million USD at present and will increase 560 million USD up to 2030.
  • Present 100000 tons gap for processing industry.
  • Compliance of 5 billion USD future Chinese markets.
  • Export to highly vegetable demanded countries.
  • To fulfill domestic flourishing hospitality industry in Pakistan.

HYDROPONIC SYSTEM

 

Dutch Bucket system

Gutter system

DUTCH BUCKET IN 185 X 185 FT

PLANT TO PLAN DISTANCE 1 FT

ROW TO DISTANCE 2 FT

WALKING PASSAGE 1 FT

NUMBER OF BUCKETS 13440

WATER HOLDING CAPACITY: 2 LTR

COCA PEAT FILLING

REMOVABLE NET

GROWING POT

DRAINAGE SYSTEM OF EXTRA NUTIRENT WATER

WATER INLET AND OUT LET SYSTEM

 

GUTTER SYSTEM COCO PEAT BAG 3.2 X 1 X 6” FT

PLANT TO PLANT DISTANCE 9”

ROW TO ROW DISTANCE  2 FT

WALKING PASSAGE 2 FT

NUMBER OF BAGS 3721

NUMBER OF GROWING UNIT 4X 61= 15860

WATER HOLDING CAPACITY I.5 LTR

WATER DRAINAGE SYSTEM

GI STAND

WATER INLET AND OUT LET SYSTEM

26047 ltr required per day  (recycle )

 

TOMATOES, CUCUMBER, CAPSICUM  CAN GROW

TOMATOES, CUCUMBER, CAPSICUM and STRAWBERRY CAN GROW

 

Hydroponic tomatoes are grown in a nutrient solution rather than soil, although they are typically placed in a non-soil material that can support their roots and hold the nutrients. Hydroponically grown vegetables can be just as nutritious as those grown in soil. … Plants make their own vitamins, so vitamin levels tend to be similar whether a vegetable is grown hydroponically or in soil.

Hydroponic tomatoes are now just as tasty as tomatoes grown outside in perfect summer conditions, scientists say. … Good tomato flavor, as we’ve noted, is a complex combination of sugars, acids and gasses we experience as smell.  Hydroponic plants grow 25-30% faster than traditionally grown plants because the perfect blend of nutrients is delivered directly to the root system. The plant does not need to expend energy on an extensive root system to find the food it needs, so all of its energy goes into upward leaf growth.

The Average Yield is for hydroponic tomatoes are about 40 pounds per square foot per year. The yield may be less than that if your tomato plants lack the proper care and nutrients. According to Texas A&M  AgriLife Extension, growers can get 46 to 50 pounds per 1.4 square feet under optimum conditions.

Similarly Roma cherry tomato plants are estimated to produce up to 200 fruits per plant; the red cherry cultivar “Sweetie” produces about 15 cherry tomatoes per cluster, so you can count the flower clusters that develop on the vine to determine the number of possible fruits to expect.

A typical tomato life cycle may take 5–10 days to germinate, 4–6 weeks after that to reach transplanting size (about 8 inches), and anywhere from 1–2 months to start setting fruit. Pakistan is situated in zone 10, average yield in low in 10 zones. But according to Agriculture University Faisalabad 25 KG target is achievable in Pakistan too. Their new verity yield is recorded 46 kg per SQFT.

While you can cultivate nearly any crop in a hydroponics system, some will give you better results and a higher yield. … Tomatoes, peppers, and cucumbers can also result in high yields with hydroponics.

Once fruit has set, these plants continue to produce until the first frost. Indeterminate plants produce more — and often larger — tomatoes than determinate varieties, but fruit production is spread out over a two- to three-month period.

What’s the difference between “indeterminate” and “determinate” tomatoes?

Determinate tomatoes, or “bush” tomatoes, are varieties that grow to a compact height (generally 3 – 4′). Determinates seeds are stop growing when fruit sets on the top bud. All the tomatoes from the plant ripen at approximately the same time (usually over period of 1- 2 weeks). They require a limited amount of staking for support and are perfectly suited for container planting.

Indeterminate tomatoes will grow and produce fruit until killed by frost. They can reach heights of up to 12 feet although 6 feet is normal. Indeterminates will bloom, set new fruit and ripen fruit all at the same time throughout the season. They require substantial staking for support.

SYSTEM FEATURES

ITEMS

DETIALS

ONE ACRE SIZE IS VARY IN DIFFERENT PART OF PAKISTAN semi commercial unit.

210 FT X 210 FT OR 210 FT X 198 FT

SQFT

44100 SQFT

DESIGN

MULTI SPAN 30 FT X 210 FT X 7 SPANS

EQUIPMENT PLACED AREA.

25 X 100 FT

RAIN DRAINAGE SYSTEM

GI GUTTER SYSTEM

GREEN HOUSE STRUCTURE  FOR 60 KMPH WIND

GI PIPE TUBE PILLARS 3” WITH THICKNESS 2MM,ARCH WT 2” WT 2MM, SUPPORT BARS 2” WT 2MM, 25MM WT 2 MM AND 16MM WT 2MM

COVER SHEET, PLOY FLIM OR POLY CARBONATE SHEET

200 MICROON , 5 LAYER or

19’ X 81” AND 6MM POLYCARBONATE SHEET AS PER DEMAND OF AREA & WIND PRESSURE & SNOW WEIGHT

SHEET FAXING

PROFILE AND ZIGZAG WIRE

GREEN SHADE

FR, BOTH AUTOMATIC OR MANUL INSIDE OR OUT SIDE GREEN HOUSE AS DEMAND ALONG WITH SIDE WALLS

CIVIL WORK

CONTREATE SIDE WALLS, TUFF TILES FLOORING OR SAND MUD WITH FABRIC SHEET AS PER LEVEL OF LAND.

DOOR

ALUMIUN SLIDING DOOR

VENTILATION & COOLING SYSTEM  FOR 617400 CFM

COOLING PAD, EXHUAST FAN, CIRCULATING FAN

MESTING & FOGGING, AIR PRUFICATION, INSECT SPARY

IMPORTED SYSTEM

FERTILER INJECTION (FRETIGATION SYSTEM)

FRENCH OR CHINESE DOZING SYSTEM per BLOCKS

WATER CONTROL SYSTEM

AUTOMATIC WATER CONTROLLING SYSTEM  17 ZONES

NUTIRENT WATER DISTRIBUTION AND STORAGE TANKS

NUTIRENT WATER DISTRIBUTION AND RECYCLING SYSTEM

WATER PUREFICATION SYSTEM

SCAN FILTER, MUD AND SAND CLEANING SYSTEM

RO PLANTS

TO CONTROL TDS LEVEL OF WATER

Cos SYSTEM AND AIR SYSTEM

OXGEN SYSTEM, AIR SYSTEM

GERMINATION  area required 25×150 FT

19000 PLANTS GERMINATION AREA AND GROWING TRAYS, WATERING SYSTEM AND TABLES OR STANDS, 100 PLANTS FOR CHANGE OF WEAK PLANTS IN SYSTEM.

PLANTS GROWING UNITS/POCKETS IN GUTTER SYSTEM

15860 GROWING UNITS OR POCKETS

DUTCH BUCKET SYSTEM

13440 GROWING UNITS OR POCKETS

 

Flow diagram

Seeding–transplant-production- irrigation—fertigation–harvesting –packing– logistic and sales

Cycle of growth & Harvesting

8-10 month

Vegetable can grow

Tomatoes, Cucumber, Capsicum and strawberry

 

Yields per Green house for each vegetable in zone 10 (Pakistan)?

Cherry Tomato: The average yield in Pakistan is around 15-20KG/sqm;

Truss Tomato): The average yield in Pakistan is around 25-30KG/sqm

Cucumber): The average yield in Pakistan is around 30-35KG/sqm;

Capsicum): The average yield in Pakistan is around 20-25KG/sqm;

2-3 plants are in 1 SQM.

How much water is required greenhouse?

Water consumption is mainly for irrigation and cooling pads.

For irrigation consumption, it is about 7-8L/SQM/day.

For cooling pad, it is about 8.6 Ton/greenhouse/hour

How much Electric city is required in green house?

Each fan consumed 1 unit PH x 19 x 150 units in hot days

Water controlling system 3 units per day

Water pump station: 15 units per day

Ro plant 10 units per day

Fretigation system used 5 units per day.

Mesting, fogging system and air & oxygen pump 5 units per day when required

Per unit is available PKR 13.00

LIGHTING 5 UNIT IN DAY.

 FERTILIZER CONSUMMATION

Mater nutrient NPK 20-20 1 LTR for 100 LTR water

Micro nutrient ½ LTR for 100 gallon

Total fertilizer is required in one time 260 LTR both fertilizer prices in local market PKR 75 LTR.

Potassium is recommend as a fertilizer supplement and lot of phosphorus during flowering, one teaspoons ammonium sulfate during watering.

Phosphoric acid for maintaining of PH level of water 5.8 to 6.3

Will the technology be required to buy seeds every time it will sow vegetables? Or will the technology be self-sufficient in seed production?

Yes, you need to buy the seeds every time for the high yields. It could not be self-sufficient. Sucker can be used for replanting, if clipped them properly or sold to open field farmers.

Does technology use chemicals, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers?

Normally no need chemicals, pesticides, and herbicides, but the fertilizers are needed.

If there are insects, then we suggest using the yellow insect sticker inside the greenhouse     

Labour required for 1 acre unit.

One skilled greenhouse manager

Two workers are requiring with normal skill.

Recommend seed for Tomatoes

Indeterminate Heirloom tomato 50-80 LBS (25-40 kg)per plant cycle is 190 days to 210 days can grow also on soil in green house USDA certified pricing is 4-5 $ for 25 seed packets . total required seeds are 17000 mean 3400 USD OR PKR 510,000. Heirloom is high quality seeds (McDONALD and PIZZA HUT consumed heirloom seed products.

Second recommended seeds are LUMA or Diamond from Holland. 1 thousand seeds packet is PKR 4700 mean PKR 79900.00 available in Pakistan Market (August to October)

Third recommended seed is Faisalabad University hybrid seed. According to one report production is 20 to 30 kgs in one cycle.

Cherry tomato is in small size and in different colors red, deep red, yellow, orange or dark purple for snakes and salads 5-7 kg per plant but very expensive like PKR 270 to PKR 400 /kg.

Recommended seed for Capsicum (bell Peppers) are Rainbow (7 colors), Keystone, NON GMO Heirloom Big red bell pepper seed. Market price is 8 USD to 15 USD for 50 seeds 90% germination and highest quality PKR 408000.00

SECOND recommended seed from Holland and 1000 seeds PACKET is available in PKR 6700 mean PKR 113900.00

Highly recommended Cucumber seed is Space master and Bush Champion variety. Burpee bush champion, burpee 66738, burpee 67455 (organic) burpee bush champion slicing cucumber seeds. All variety seed price is between 10 USD to 30 USD per 150 seeds.

Second recommended seed from Holland and 1000 seeds packet is PKR 5400 mean PKR 91800 cost of seed in one acre.

DUA ENTERPRISES is assisting client in SUBA Italian seeds, Canada nutrients, and Thailand fertilizers. All seeds should be Indeterminate.

Climate Control in green house for Tomatoes

 

Lighting

16 to 18 hours mean 12 sunlight and rest of time artificial LED light

PH range

5.8 to 6.3

Temperature in side

65-75 Fahrenheit or 23 OCs

Night time temperature

65 to 65 Fahrenheit  0r 18 OCs

Humidity

80 %

TDS LEVEL OF WATER

LESS THAN 100

PMM LEVEL

 

Germination days

14 to 28 days

Indeteminate seed cycle

210 to 240 days

Climate Control in green house for Cucumber

 

Germination TEMP

70-85 Fahrenheit

Germination time

3-10 days

Growing TEMP

70-80 Fahrenheit

Distance between plant (Depend on variety)

2-3 FT

Sun light

12-14 hours

Water PH level

5.0-6.0

 Special Food Supplement

Dyna-Gro liquid bloom during flowering or general hydroponic Flora series

Ready for harvesting

50-70 days

TDS-EC level

 

PMM level

 

 

Climate Control in green house for Capsicum (low tech system)

 

Germination

7-14 days using heating pad

Growing TEMP

65-75 Fahrenheit

Spacing between plant to plant

18-24 inches

Lighting

14-18 hours

Growing time

14 to 18 weeks

Special Food supplement

3 MOL of nitrogen, Dyna-gro liquid bloom

Water PH level + Oxygenated water

5.5-6.5

Harvesting

50-80 days

TDS –EC

 

PMM

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ESTIMATION PRODUCTION PER ACRE

Items

Number of plants

PRO in kg /year

In Tons

Cherry tomato

The average yield in Pakistan is around 15-20KG/sqm;

15860 /3= 5286

105733 KGS

105 TONS

TRUSS Tomato

The average yield in Pakistan is around 25-30KG/sqm

15860/3= 5286

158580 KGS

159 TONS

Capsicum

The average yield in Pakistan is around 20-25KG/sqm;

15860/3= 5286

132150 KGS

133 TONS

Cucumber

The average yield in Pakistan is around 30-35KG/sqm;

15860/2= 7930

277550 KGS

278 TONS

 

Average pricing in market

Cherry Tomato cultivation in Rabi season

Prices

August – November

 PKR 170/KG

November to February

PKR 100/KG

February – May

PKR 150/ KG

May – August

PKR 150/KG

Average price

PKR 142/KG

Truss Tomato in Rabi season

 

August- November

PKR 50/KG

November – February

PKR 90/KG

February – May

PKR 120/KG

May– August

PKR 60/KG

Average price

PKR 80/ KG

CUCUMBER in Kharif season

 

August- November

PKR 70/KG

November – February

PKR 80/KG

February – May

PKR 50/KG

May – August

PKR 60/KG

Average price

PKR 65/KG

Capsicum

 

August – November

PKR 12O/KG

November – February

PKR 110/KG

February – May

PKR 120/KG

May – August

PKR 110/KG

AVERAGE

PKR 115/-

AVERAGE COLOR CAPSICUM

PKR 280/ KG

ESTIMATED SALES BASED ON ABOVE AVERAGE PRICE

5 % WASTAGE

ITEMS

PER KGS

PRODUCTION

SALE

CHERRY TOMATO

142/KGS

100446 KGS

14,263,381.00

TRUSS TOMATO

80/KGS

150580 KGS

12,046,400.00

CAPSICUM

115/KGS

263672 KGS

30,322,337.00

CUCUMBER

65/KGS

125542 KGS

8,160,262.00

  • PROJECTED SALES ARE MORE THAN 9 ACRE CONVENTIONAL SALES PKR 10,302,790 (ESTIMATED BY SMEDA PRE FEASIBILITY PAPER)
  • MORE PRODUCTION IN NUMBERS 35580 KG AS COMPARED TO 9 ACRE PROJECTION.

 

EXPENDITURE IN YEAR

ONE ACRE HYDROPONIC UNIT

DAILY

MONTHLY

YEARLY

SEED CHERRY TOMATO  8 month cycle

   

89900.00

SEED TRUSS TOMOTO 8 month cycle

   

79900.00

SEED CAPSICUM 7 month cycle

   

113900.00

SEED CUCUMBER 7 month cycle

   

91800.00

FERTILIZER MASTER & MACRIO NUTIRENT  PKR 75/LTR +75/LTR

1311.00

39,000.00

468,000.00

SUPPLIMENTS TOMATOES

 

1875.00

22500.00

SUPPLIMENT CAPSICUM

 

750.00

34000.00

SUPPLIMENT FOR CUCUMBER

 

1500.00

45000.00

ELECTRIC CITY PKR 13/UNIT

1600.00

48000.00

576,000.00

WATER 7000 GALLON (RECYCLE)

366.00

7333.00

87999.00

LABOUR 1+2

1633.00

49000.00

588,000.00

PACKAGING

8 times

10,000

120,000.00

TRANSPORTATION 8000X 12

8 times

 

96000.00

TOTAL TOMATOES

   

2,048,399.00

TOTAL CAPSICUM

   

1,899,900.00

TOTAL CUCUMBER

   

1,976,799.00

 

     

CONSTRUCTION COST OF PROJECT:

CONSTRUCTION COST

 

 

Skelton 3” WT 2MM, ARCH 2” WT 2MM, SUPPORT BARS 25MM WT 2MM 16 MM WT 2MM (multi span)

4,298,899.00

 

COVERSHEET 200 MICROON

1050,000.00

 

PROFILE AND ZIGZAG WIRE

275,700.00

5,623,899.00

WATER SYSTEM

   

WATER FILTRATION AND RO PLANT

733,500.00

 

WATER CONTROLLING SYSTEM  AND WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM AND STORAGE (AUTOMATIC)

997,000.00

1,730,500.00

FERTILIZER DOZING SYSTEM WITH TANKS (AUTOMATIC)

906,250.00

 

NPK Analyzer

1,689,000.00

2,595,250.00

MISTING AND FOGGING SYSTEM (AUTOMATIC)

   

LOCAL OR CHINESE

235,000.00

 

COOLING AND VENTILATION SYSTEM (AUTOMATIC)

   

COOLING PADS, EXHUAST FAN, CIRCULATING FAN, HUMIDITY CONTROLING SYSTEM (AUTOMATIC )

1,770,300.00

 

TEMP & CONTROLING SYSTEM

279,840.00

2,285,140.00

OXYGEN SYSTEM AND AIRPUREFICATION SYSTEM

179,000.00

 

Co2 system

235,000.00

414,000.00

SHADING

   

SHADING MAUAL OPERATED

495,000.00

495,000.00

GROWING SYSTEM

   

GUTTER SYSTEM WITH AUTOMATIC DRAINAGE SYSTEM

2,950,000.00

2,950,000.00

GERMINATION AREA 25’ X 150’

   

GERMINATION AUTOMATIC WATERING SYSTEM AND TABLES OR STANDS

425,000.00

425,000.00

ELECTRIC SYSTEM

   

ELECTRIC PANNEL, WIRING

420,000.00

420,000.00

HANG CLIPS & GI WIRE

325,000

325,000.00

CIVIL WORK  PKR 45 FT X 44100 SQFT

475,000.00

 

Flooring fabric

475,000.00

 

GI WIRE

29,400.00

979,400.00

MISC

100,000.00

100,000.00

LABOUR COST

450,000.00

450,000.00

TOTAL:

 

22,168,889.00

EXCHANGE RATE 1 USD = PKR 156

 

142,108.00 US$

SERVICES CHARGES 6 % OF TOTAL COST

 

1,330,133.00

 

   
  • ABOVE CACULATION BASED USD 1= PKR 156, USD FLECTION MIGHT BE MINUS – PLUS IN COST
  • ALL GOVT DUTIES AND TAXES WILL ADD-UP ACCORDINGLY
  • 75 ADVANCE 15 % AND 10 % ON COMPLETION OF JOB
  • ALL BANK CHARGES ALSO WILL ADDED UP IN COST.

REPLACMENT OF EQUIPMENT

DESCRIPTION

DETAILS

REPLACMENT OF COVER SHEET IN YEARS

4

REPLACMENT OF COCO PEAT BAGS

5

REPLACMENT OF COOLING PADS

5

 

PROJECT FINANCING

Description

DETAILS

Total project financing

PKR 22,168,889.00

Running finance

PKR 2048399.00

Owner equity

50 %

Bank equity if bank is involved

50 %

Markup

Interest rate Agri bank 6 % interest rate % 12.50

Tenure is payback (years )

5

PROJECT ECONOMICS

DESCRIPTION

DETAILS

INTERNAL RATE OF RETURN (IRR)

32 %

PAYBACK PERIOD (Yrs)

2.2

NET PRESENT VALUE (NPV) Rs.

68,285,727.00

The above tables shows internal rate of return, payback period and net present value. Return on investment and its profitability are highly dependent on the entrepreneur having some practical knowledge about agriculture, framing, technology know how, operational capacity of staff and market knowledge. Selection of high quality seeds, fertilizer, supplements and vegetables cultivation.

KEY ASSUSPTIONS

DESCRITION (Operating cost assumption)

DETAILS

Administration benefits expenses

05% of admin expense

Communication expenses

 

21,000 annual expense

Travelling expense

35,000 annual expense

Promotional expense on social media

75,000

Professional fees (legal, audit, consultant)

05% of revenue

Deprecation

5 %

Office expenses

40,000

Office vehicles insurance rate

10%

Depreciation on green house and equipment’s

33 %

Depreciation of vehicle

20 %

Operating costs growth rate

5 %

Accounts receivable cycle

25 days

Raw material inventory

06 months

Amortization of pre operating expenses

05 years

Description of production cost assumption

Details

Cost of goods sold growth rates

 10 %

Operating cost growth rate

5 %

Vegetable market expense

10 %

Farm to market trip cost

PKR8000x 12= 96000 per trip load 14 tons

No of trips 12

Description of Revenue assumption

 

Sales prices growth rate

10 %

Production capacity utilization (1-10)

100 %

Days operation

210-240 days

Financial assumptions

 

Project life

10 %

Structure grantees

20-25 year

Debt

50 %

Equity 

50 %

Interest rate on debt

20 %

Debt tenure

5

Debt payment years

1

 

urban farming

Vision 2025 has identified the nexus of food security with water as one of the main pillars – and the objective here is to ensure sufficient, reliable, clean and cost-effective access to water and food. To achieve this, Pakistan needs to build a climate change resilient agricultural sector.

Urban agriculture or Vertical farming is the practice of cultivating, processing, and distributing food in or around a village, town, or city. Urban agriculture can also involve animal husbandry, aquaculture, and agroforestry, hydroponic, Aquaponics, Aeroponics and horticulture. Urban agriculture is part of the urban ecological system and can play an important role in the urban environmental management system. Today our growing city will produce more and more waste water and organic wastes, creating ecological problems and facing food security issues and unhealthy vegetables supply… Urban agriculture can help to solve such these problems by turning urban surplus into a productive resource.

Urban gardening is the process of growing plants of all types and varieties in an urban environment. Today urban farming is translated in to industry, which is encompasses several unique gardening concepts, including: Container gardening, Hydroponic, Aquaponics vertical systems. There are many segments of urban farming.

Pre-agriculture practices within and around cities these are competing the resources (land, water, and energy, labour) that could also serve other purposes to satisfy the requirements of the urban population.”

Organic Farm…beyond money and ethics, though, organic farming practices result in numerous environmental benefits.

  • Organic Farming Discourages Environmental Exposure to Pesticides and Chemicals. …
  • Organic Farming Builds Healthy Soil. …
  • Organic Farming Helps Combat Erosion. …
  • Organic Farming Fights the Effects of Global Warming.

Organic agriculture and its importance

Organic agriculture is involved with the natural methods like crop rotation, biological pest control, compost etc. In the process of organic farming, the farmers use fertilizers as well as pesticides by following the dosage limitations strictly.

Vertical farming

 It is most modern technique of cultivation, cultivated vegetable on your rooftop, vacant rooms, and basement. Through that system you can ensure sustainable growth, consistence income and help out urban population with fresh food and food security, environment protection and water security.

Benefits of Urban Farming

Community farming offers many benefits to farmers who want to practice sustainable agriculture and to communities who want fresh, healthy, locally-produced food.

  • Healthy Local Economies. …
  • Environmental Solutions. …
  • Local Food Security. …
  • Market Stability. …
  • Social Capital and Community Amenities.
  • Increases Food Security. Food security is having access to and being able to afford nutritious, safe food—and enough of it. …
  • Creates a Sense of Belonging. …
  • Produces Healthy Food You Can Respect. …
  • Provides a Learning Opportunity. …
  • Makes Efficient Use of Land.

HOW URBAN FARING CONTRIBUTE SOCIETY integrity, sense of ownership and food security

Here are 10 ways urban farms are contributing to the improved health of their communities:

  • Reduce Carbon Emissions. …
  • Innovative Techniques. …
  • Job Creation. …
  • Economic Growth. …
  • Community Building. …
  • Public Health. …
  • Food Quality. …
  • Food Security.

BREIF:-

Food Security & Sustainable agriculture also benefits the environment by maintaining soil quality, reducing soil degradation and erosion, and saving water. In addition to these benefits, sustainable agriculture also increases biodiversity of the area by providing a variety of organisms with healthy and natural environments to live in. Time is money. Not only are organic farms typically smaller than conventional ones, but they also, on average, take more time to produce crops because they refrain from using the chemicals and growth hormones used by conventional farmers. Production-oriented government subsidies reduce the overall cost of crops. The main components of both sustainable farming and conventional farming are exactly the same: soil management, crop management, water management, disease/pest management and waste management.

  • Sustainable Agriculture: Meeting Current Needs Without Sacrificing Future Needs.
  • Protecting Water Quality and Supply. …
  • Sustainable Land Use: Maintaining Wildlife Habitat and Biodiversity. 
  • Renewable Energy Production and Consumption. …
  • Plant and Animal Production Practices. …
  • Labor Practices and Social and Economic Equity.
  • REDUCE CARBON EMISSIONS
  • By localizing produce, urban farms cut down on the significant amount of fossil fuel consumption necessary to transport, package, and sell food. The average meal has traveled 4,200 miles just to get to your table. Urban agriculture helps consumers reduce their “food print” by providing them the opportunity to purchase food that was grown within their community.
  • INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUES

As city spaces lack the wide-open fertile grounds of traditional farming methods, urban farmers are tasked with finding creative solutions to dealing with challenges like waste, space, resources, and energy. Because of this, more efficient innovations are created to improve the quality and quantity of food that can be produced with the least amount of resources. (For example, the vertical hydroponic & Aquaponics systems of The Growing Experience in Long Beach produce 3-4 times as much produce as traditional farming methods and use significantly less water.)

  • JOB CREATION

From window box herb gardens to large community spaces, these farms create opportunities to involve the community. Urban farms create job (and volunteer) opportunities in big cities, where poverty and hunger are often persistent issues. An increase in small businesses stimulates local economy and supports the community by creating jobs right where people live.

  • ECONOMIC GROWTH

By virtue of their proximity to consumers, urban farms stimulate local economy by circulating income throughout the region. Without a complicated distribution network, farmers are more connected to their market and able to adapt quickly to demand, maximizing profit. In addition, many of these organizations are structured in a way that brings additional benefit to the community and support to low income populations by stabilizing food costs and are in many cases, offering discounted or free produce.

  • COMMUNITY BUILDING

Gardens create more than healthy, delicious food. Urban agriculture brings people together with a common interest — food. The overall health of a community is benefited by increasing its capacity to create an environment that truly sustains its residents. Most urban farming projects require a high level of social organization, giving many individuals in the community a vested interest in its success.

  • PUBLIC HEALTH

Increasing populations of people in cities suffer from malnutrition and a variety of other diet-related health issues. Bringing nutritious food to local communities has many direct health benefits, including reducing the risk of harmful conditions like heart disease, obesity, diabetes, and more. Involving individuals in the garden itself provides an opportunity for exercise and a deeper connection to agriculture.

  • FOOD QUALITY

Smaller scale, local markets provide the opportunity for farmers to foster more unique varieties of produce. These farms preserve biodiversity by cultivating heirloom varieties or those with lower shelf-stability. The proximity and connectedness to market allows for fresh, nutritious produce to become available to communities that have never had access to this in the past.

  • FOOD SECURITY

While there may not be a “shortage” of food in most regions, issues of access are absolutely prevalent — especially in urban areas. In Orange County, about 400,000 people do not have access to affordable, healthy food. Urban agriculture helps to correct this by reducing the price of healthy food by eliminating the middleman and increasing the opportunity for community members in need to participate in the growing of this food. Many urban farms also adopt charitable models in an effort to support communities in need through direct donation or by providing either discounted or free produce.

  • EDUCATION

Urban agriculture addresses another issue inherent throughout our current food culture — a disconnection to where our food comes from. By involving children and adults alike in education around sustainable, local agriculture, farmers increase the health of our future food systems.

  • GREEN SPACE

Lastly, agriculture in cities provides something obvious — more green space. This contributes to the health of city ecosystems in a variety of ways. Greenery adds aesthetic appeal, reduces runoff from precipitation, provides restful spaces for the community, and counters the heat island effect by fixing carbon through photosynthesis.

Urban farming, from concept to realization

The world population grows possible from 6 to 9 billion people in 2050 and the global diet shifts from vegetable to animal products. This combination of population growth and dietary change challenges us to look to sustainable food systems. It is a complex challenge that requires a food transition: a long term transition to sustainable production, processing and distribution and a more balanced, sustainable and healthy diet. Cities play a crucial role in the sustainability of our food system.  Therefore live ability, space use, social cohesion and sustainability are high on the administrative agenda. A renewed link between the city and surrounding country (agriculture) can help to solve part of the above issues. By 2050 rising populations will see a 50% increase in food demand. Throw climate change, the severity of catastrophic weather events and water scarcity into the mix and the world faces a bleak future. Existing farming practices are unsustainable.

We need to look at alternative ways to create energy and to produce food. That’s no longer a preferred option but a necessity.

Today’s agricultural processes demand huge amounts of energy and extract vast quantities of dwindling water from the earth. Even worse, they are dramatically impacted by bad weather and disease, so prices fluctuate wildly.

Up to 80% of the planet’s scarce fresh water is used for agriculture, so to develop a food production that uses none at all is nothing short of miraculous. Growing food in a desert, especially in a period of sustained drought, is a pretty counterintuitive idea.

The goal of this project is to support the development of urban agriculture into a full social and economic activity:

  1. To connect and strengthen initiatives around urban agriculture
  2. To underpin  and enhancing the potential of urban agriculture
  3. To broaden the knowledge for teaching, research, policy and entrepreneurs

PAKISTAN and Hard Facts

Pakistan, agriculture provides employment for approximately 25 million people. Over the last few decades, Pakistan has suffered from alternating cycles of extreme flooding in irrigated plains and prolonged droughts in its arid zones. Per capita water availability has fallen below 1,200 cubic meters and it is estimated that it will be reduced by half by mid-century. Water security for both agriculture and domestic use is becoming critical, and climate resilience practices need to be transferred to the rural population on an urgent basis.

Poverty is predominantly a rural problem, with rural people comprising more than 60 per cent of the population (116 million) and accounting for 80 per cent of the country’s poor. Rural farmers face small landholdings; poor access to markets; a lack of access to credit, inputs and support services; limited off-farm employment opportunities; and policy and institutional constraints.

The country has a high number of young people, with over 55 per cent of the population below the age of 25 and over 35 per cent between 25 and 54 years. Considerable gender disparities exist on account of socio-economic, political and health factors. The adult literacy rate is 56 per cent, but there are huge variations between the urban and rural population and across regions. Unemployment Rate in Pakistan remained unchanged at 5.90 percent in 2016 from 5.90 percent in 2015. Unemployment Rate in Pakistan averaged 5.47 percent from 1985 until 2016, reaching an all-time high of 7.80 percent in 2002 and a record low of 3.10 percent in 1987.

Pakistan could “run dry” by 2025 as its water shortage is reaching an alarming level. Researchers predict that Pakistan is on its way to becoming the most water-stressed country in the region by the year 2040. In 2016, PCRWR reported that Pakistan touched the “water stress line” in 1990 and crossed the “water scarcity line” in 2005. If this situation persists, Pakistan is likely to face an acute water shortage or a drought-like situation in the near future. Experts say that population growth and urbanisation are the main reasons behind the crisis. The issue has also been exacerbated by climate change, poor water management and a lack of political will to deal with the crisis. “Pakistan is approaching the scarcity threshold for water. What is even more disturbing is that groundwater supplies — the last resort of water supply —are being rapidly depleted. Water scarcity in Pakistan has been accompanied by rising temperatures”, The monsoon season has become erratic in the past few years. The winter season has shrunk from four to two months in many parts of the country. At the time of Pakistan’s birth in 1947, forests accounted for about 5 percent of the nation’s area, but they have now dropped to only 2 percent.

Despite its impressive and continuously growing amounts of agricultural production, the country is struggling with significant levels of food insecurity. According to World Food Programme (2009), more than 48 percent of the population is food insecure. FATA has the highest percentage of food insecure population (67.7 percent) followed by Baluchistan (61.2 percent) and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (56.2 percent). The report details Pakistan’s official Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) which was earlier published in the Economic Survey of Pakistan 2015–2016. … According to the report, nearly 39 percent of Pakistanis live in multidimensional poverty, with the highest rates of poverty in FATA and Baluchistan.

Large amounts of agricultural production and the continuously increasing population place high demands on Pakistan’s water resources. At present, the annual per capita availability of water in Pakistan is estimated at about 1,100 cubic meters; below 1,000 cubic meters, countries begin experiencing chronic water stress (Population Action International, 1993). Vast majority of the country’s water resources – some 90 percent – is used for agriculture, while the remaining share is split equally between the industry and the domestic use.

Vision 2025 has identified the nexus of food security with water as one of the main pillars – and the objective here is to ensure sufficient, reliable, clean, and cost-effective access to water and food. To achieve this, Pakistan needs to build a climate change resilient agricultural sector.

Furthermore, Vision 2025 has identified the nexus of food security with water as one of the main pillars – and the objective here is to ensure sufficient, reliable, clean, and cost-effective access to water and food. To achieve this, Pakistan needs to build a climate change resilient agricultural sector.

Pakistan’s main water source is the Indus canal irrigation system, yet due to ongoing operational and maintenance issues, there are extensive water losses in transit which adversely affect landholdings at the tail end of the distribution channels. This, combined with the inefficient water usage on farmlands, leads to low yields, which in turn reduce farm income, creating a vicious cycle. The recurrence of droughts in certain areas and floods in others in recent years, has further increased the number of food insecure people. As Faizan Ali Ghori, Director, Matco Foods Limited, points out “the risk is not of water scarcity, but the lack of efficient water management across agricultural value chains.” He is of the view that these challenges can be managed by adopting soil and water conservation technologies, installation of high-efficiency irrigation systems and developing drought-resistant crop varieties to sustain food security. (DAWN)

Without any reason or a waiting for Govt resource, administrative political initiatives/polices ever single urban and ruler citizen should initiate with his own resources. Urban farming is accumulated is best way for food security, ecological enrichment, water management and social coherence in society.

Second big issue is waste water vegetables

Vegetables absorb heavy metals from polluted soil and water, thus contaminating the food chain at all levels.

A 2013 study by the Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (Suparco) that measured the toxicity of vegetables grown in the Malir river basin identified 10,000 acres of cultivated land where this practice is taking place. Dr Mubarak Ahmed, director general at the Pakistan Agriculture Research Council (PARC), estimates that close to 10 per cent of Karachi’s residents are exposed to these vegetables, especially those living near where they are cultivated. Another study is calculated that about 25 per cent to 30 per cent of the city’s vegetables were grown with waste water. These figures include produce grown using waste water from the Lyari River, which is now reduced to a sewage drain. A well-known haven for vegetable farms that draw water from the polluted Lyari River closer to the city’s south-western coastline is the area aptly known as Gutter Baghicha (Gutter Garden). Like Shah Faisal Colony, this land is also surrounded by controversy. Officially it comes under the Karachi Municipal Corporation but the people growing vegetables here have all encroached upon it.

A waste water treatment plant near Gutter Baghicha, one of three in the city, is supposed to remove harmful pathogens from the waste water before it is dumped into the drain. There are, however, conflicting reports about whether this plant is functional. Official figures from the Karachi Water and Sewerage Board (KWSB) show that, even if it were functional, it runs at less than half its optimum capacity. With more than 2000 factories located in the neighboring SITE area, the treatment plant is of little use in reducing toxins in waste water.

Heavy metals in soil and vegetables grown with municipal wastewater in Lahore

RIVER RAVI, waste water.

Study around River Ravi is narrated a horrific fact and figures, Heavy metals contamination of fruits and vegetables as a consequence of wastewater irrigation is most important concern, Present study measures heavy metals concentration (Cr, Cu and Pb) in soil and vegetable samples collected from agriculture area around four major drains of Lahore (Hudiara drain, Babu Sabu drain, Chota  Ravi drain and Kharak drain). Results show that concentration of Cu, Cr and Pb in soil samples were in compliance with WHO and EU standards, with an average of 2.221 + 1.184, 5.314 + 1.0511, and 3.864 + 1.6095 mg/kg respectively. Cu contenting  vegetable sranged from 0.4-18.9 mg/Kg (average of 4.11 + 6.639 mg/kg), was within limits while Cr in Lady Finger, from Chota Ravi drain area, was 13.2 mg/Kg which is higher than permissible limit (2.4 mg/Kg). While Pb concentration in vegetables samples varied between 0.7 -8.1 mg/Kg (Mean 2.329 + 2.592 mg/kg), which was also higher than the standard (0.3 mg/Kg).

Study is concluded that vegetables grown along four major drains are contaminated with metals i.e. Cu, Cr and Pb in varying amounts. In soil samples Cu, Cr and Pb are detected but their concentration are within applicable permissible limits whereas concentration of Cr and Pb is high in vegetables samples. Application of wastewater for irrigation has the potential to accumulate high level of heavy metals in human due to consumption of these vegetables.

 Solution:

Although urban farming is new phenomena across globe, People are gathering around that solution, that solution not only emerged as a food security, climate protection but also as social coherence activities. People not only share fresh food, discuss pattern of cultivation also they created small community shops direct dealing with consumer and farmers.

ROOF TOP, Urban Farming.

An urban farm can include rooftop agriculture or the cultivation of vacant lots. In almost all cases of urban agriculture some form of intensive or vertical gardening must be utilized due to space limitations. Greenhouses are also a popular form of urban farming.

Most urban farms grow produce, bedding, or perennial plants, although others grow more specialized plants such as poinsettias or orchids under carefully controlled environmental conditions.

Some plants that require vast stretches of acreage like corn or grains just are not practical for the constraints of an urban farm.

Due to space limitations, horticulturalists must be creative when designing for rooftop intensive gardening in raised beds or vertical gardening in the small spaces between buildings.

Vertical farming is a common method of urban farming and often takes place in an interior environment with carefully controlled conditions and lighting. Some vertical farms with conditions similar to greenhouses use natural light and solar heating. Other vertical farms are completely indoors and use artificial lighting, and humidity and heating equipment.

Vertical farming is a common method of growing produce in an indoor environment (e.g., a building or walk-in container) with carefully controlled conditions and lighting.

Some vertical farms have conditions similar to greenhouses, using natural sunlight and primarily solar heating during the day. Other vertical farms are completely indoors, using artificial lighting and humidity and heating controls.

Lettuce, kale, and other forms of greens are the most common vegetables grown in vertical farms. Some crops like corn or grain just are not practical for this form of agriculture.

Vertical farming is the practice of producing food and medicine in vertically stacked layers, vertically inclined surfaces and/or integrated in other structures (such as in a skyscraper, used warehouse, or shipping container).

Advantages of Vertical Farming

  • Year-round crop production.
  • Eliminates agricultural runoff.
  • Significantly reduces use of fossil fuels (farm machines and transport of crops)
  • Makes use of abandoned or unused properties.
  • No weather related crop failures.
  • Offers the possibility of sustainability for urban centers.

Vertical farming is the growing of crops in vertically stacked layers. Vertical hydroponics, as the name suggests, is the combination of hydroponics and vertical farming. So in a vertical hydroponics grow system, you will have several stacked levels, with plants being grown on each level.

Vertical farming is the practice of growing produce in vertically stacked layers. The practice can use soil, hydroponic or aeroponic growing methods. Vertical farms attempt to produce food in challenging environments, like where arable land is rare or unavailable.

According to experts an average acre of traditionally farmed land will earn a farmer between PKR 20,000 and PKR 30,000 per year. An average acre of hydroponically grown crops will earn between PKR 200,000 and PKR 250,000 per year.

Through vertical farming we can grow from small vacant room to our roof top.

SL # AREA # of Plants can grow Production in year Sale in year
1 15 FT x 12 FT room Broccoli 1232 plants 308 x4= 1232 kg x PKR 280/kg 344960.00
2 5 merla  25 FT x 45 FT 7084 plants 1771 kg x 4 = 7084 kg x PKR 280/kg 1983520.00
3 10 merla 35 x 70 FT 9856 plants 2464 kg x 4= 9856kg x PKR  280/kg 2759680.00
4 I kanal 50x 90 FT 22176 plants 5544x  4= 22176 kg x PKR 280/kg 6209,280.00

 VERTICAL FARMING SEMI COMMERCIAL UNIT FEASIBILITY

DESCRIPTION Details
Size 33X60 1980 SQFT
Plant to plant distance 9”
Unit size 26 x4x10 ft  26 x 4 x 18 ft
Walking passage 1 FT
GROWING UNIT 29376
Number of PlantS 117504 in year
Water Holding Capacity 6 LTR
   
Growing pots with Drainage Recycle system of nutrient water
TDS level of water Less than 100
PH level of water 5.6-6.0
Humidity in tunnel 80 %
TEMP 26 OCs
Growing All vegetable leaf and herbs, WESTERN & CHINESE

Flow diagram

Seeding–transplant-production- irrigation—fertigation–harvesting –packing– logistic and sales

Cycle of growth & Harvesting

70-80 days

Yields per Green house for each vegetable in zone 10 (Pakistan)?

IS ABOUT 800 GRMS APPROX.  per plant.

How much water is required greenhouse?

Water consumption is mainly for irrigation and cooling pads.

For irrigation consumption, it is about 7-8L/SQM/day.

For cooling pad, it is about 8.6 Ton/greenhouse/hour

 How much Electric city is required in green house?

Each fan consumed 1 unit PH x 4 x 5 units in hot days

Water controlling system 1 units per day

Water pump station: 7 units per day

Ro plant 8 units per day

Fretigation system used 2 units per day.

Misting, fogging system and air & oxygen pump 1 unit per day when required

Per unit is available PKR 13.00

6-8 hours LIGHTING 4 UNIT IN DAY.

FERTILIZER CONSUMATION

  • Green and Pure Micronutrient liquid Fertilizer ia a Yield Booster for Plants. Micronutrients are essential for plant growth and play an important role in balanced crop nutrition.
  • It improves the Quality, Quantity and guarantees Greener leaves & healthy plants. Increases the Root & Internodes length, Chlorophyll content of the leaf.
  • Enhances the yield up to 20-30% over the normal yield, Induces Flowering, Eradicates Nutrient deficiency by balancing the soil substrates. Also helps to fight Drought & Provides Pest resistance.
  • Composition: Boron (B), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Molybdenum (Mo), Zinc (Zn), Nickel (Ni) and Chloride (Cl).It is Best Suitable For Hydroponics, Home Garden, Terrace Gardening, Grow Bag Cultivation, Kitchen Gardening, Terrace Poly House Gardening & Roof Top Balcony Gardening.
  • Dosage: Use 3 – 5 ml of Green and Pure Micronutrient Fertilizer for one liter of water; Application: It can be applied in the Root Zone & can be sprayed on the leaves as Foliar Sprays once in 15 days.

The three Major /MASTER nutrients plants need are nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Nitrogen is the main nutrient that supports plant growth. It makes plants green and leafy. Provided at the right time and in the proper amounts, nitrogen can give plants the kick-start they need to produce a bountiful harvest.

PRICES: PKR 2540/- TO 2955.00

Mater nutrient NPK (4-18-38) 1 LTR for 100 LTR water

Micro nutrient are phosphorus as nitrogen or potassium. An example would be 10-20-10 or 12-24-12. Usage is  ½ LTR for 100 gallon

Total fertilizer is required in one time 2000 LTR both fertilizer prices in local market PKR 75 LTR.

Potassium is recommend as a fertilizer supplement and lot of phosphorus during flowering, one teaspoons ammonium sulfate during watering.

Phosphoric acid for maintaining of PH level of water 5.8 to 6.3

Food supplement

22-0-16 Veg is a crystal clear, liquid nitrogen and potassium solution that can be applied by foliar, soil or hydroponic application. Use during vegetative growth cycle to establish optimal growth, size and vigor, for support of essential macro-elements that must be replaced regularly especially during vigorous vegetative growth phase. 22-0-16 Veg contains a unique slow release nitrogen source, methylene urea that is formulated by a proprietary manufacturing process. Methylene nitrogen feeds plant slowly and consistently over several weeks, called the “Smart Nitrogen” choice for green, thriving and healthy plant growth. With 82% Smart Methylene Nitrogen, this product adheres to soil particles and will not leach or volatilize. Important for use in soilless media and outdoors where watering, or heavy rain can leach away nutrients recently applied. Smart nitrogen releases as the plant needs it ensuring consistent feeding and growth without flush growth that can often lead to disease problems. 22-0-16 Veg’s potassium source, potassium carbonate, is 100% soluble and immediately taken up by roots and foliage for fast response. 22-0-16 Grow has a very low salt index and therefore is safe to use from the very beginning of the growth cycle until maturity. It does not contain any nitrates, chlorides or sulfates and in combination with the nitrogen’s extremely low salt index, will not contribute to a buildup of salts in the soil, soilless media or hydroponics system.

Price: PKR 12787.00

2-8-32-5 Bloom 1 liquid concentrate contains three essential nutrients P, K and Mg that are essential for seed starting and promoting good root development of seedlings. It is also important to use at the pre-flowering & flowering stage. A completely soluble form, the concentrated phosphorous and potassium is quickly absorbed by roots and quickly promotes flowering. Created though a proprietary manufacturing process, the unique slow release nitrogen source in 8-32-5 Bloom 1, from methylene urea, feeds plants slowly & consistently, thereby dubbed the “Smart Nitrogen” choice for even feeding. When used on young plants, vegetative development will be supported with controlled release, without starving the plant’s overall growth, minimizing stretching & eliciting tight, efficient growth when under lights. A full package of chelated micronutrients ensures over-all plant health & avoids deficiencies & nutritional stress. 8-32-5 Bloom 1 has an ideal pH range of 6 – 7 to ensure steady nutrient uptake & growth. 8-32-5 Bloom 1’s true liquid solution can be soil applied with any injection or irrigation system, or as a drench or foliar spray, on leaves, for fast absorption. It can be used on soil, soilless & hydroponic system & has a low salt index, reducing the potential for burn.

PRICE: PKR 7218.00

3- CALCIUM MAGNESIUM: PKR 12230.00

4- COMPANION FUNGICIDE: PKR 18727.00

5- ORGANIC 1-0-1: 13983.00

To help you get started with growing your seeds the right way the following are helpful tips:

  1. You will need to soak the cubes in clean and pure water for up to one hour.
  2. Into each hole in the starter cubes, insert seed numbering between two and four. Once the seeds start sprouting, choose the strongest ones from the bunch. Moreover, in case some do not germinate, it is always important to add extra seeds.
  3. Now, it is time to take the starter cubes to your growing nursery. You can opt to use ziplock bags then add some drops of water. In case of zip bags, seal and put them in a dark corner or a closet for up to 5 days. After this, you can move them to your grow tray because the chances are that all of them will have sprouted.
  4. Keep adding an adequately diluted nutrient solutioninto the tray and expect more sprouting in a few days. That is the time to increase grow lights but slowly closer to the plants with every passing day. The space between plants and the lights should always remain not more than 6 inches.

.SEEDS

There is so much research that goes into indeterminate the best seeds for hydroponics to reduce the probability of failed germination

PRICES: PKR 3000- 4600/1000 SEEDS

VEGETABLES AND HERB CAN GROW.

ROCKET SALAD, SPINACH, ASPARAGUS, MUSSCULAM, BROCCOLI, CABBAGE, CULIFLOWER, CLIPGROUND, VIDABLOGGER, ICEBERG, 5 VERITIES OF LETTUCE, WATERCRESS, MUSTARDLEAF, ASPARAGUS, KALE AND LEAF VEGS.

HERB:

ANISE,BASIL,CATNIP,CHAMOMILE,CHERVIL,CHIVES,CILANTRO,CORIANDER,DILL,FANNEL,OREGANO,,PARSELY,ROSEMARY,SAGE,PARSLEY,TARRAGON,THYME.

All Chinese and western veg

DUA ENTERPRISES assisted clients in purchase of Seeds, Fertilizer, Nutrients.

ESTIMATION PRODUCTION 33x60x24 FT

Items Number of plants PRO in kg /year In Tons
Broccoli
The average yield in Pakistan per flower 400 grms 117504 /2= 58752 KGS 58.7 TONS
Cabbage
The average yield in Pakistan per flower 800 grm 117504/1.2= 700 97920 KGS 97.9TONS
Ice berg
The average yield in Pakistan per flower 370 grm 117504/2.5= 500 47001 KGS 47.0TONS
Rock salad
The average yield in Pakistan per flower 400 117504/2.5= 47001 KGS 47.0TONS
LETTUCES  AVG YIELD PERPLANT 350 GRMS 117504/2.8= 41965 KGS 41 TONS
Average pricing in market

Broccoli

Prices
August – November  PKR 350/KG
November to February PKR 400/KG
February – May PKR 280/ KG
May – August PKR 280/KG
Average price PKR 327/kg
Cabbage  
August- November PKR 100/KG
November – February PKR 80/KG
February – May PKR 60/KG
May– August PKR 80/KG
Average price PKR 80/ KG
Ice berg  
August- November PKR 90/KG
November – February PKR 120/KG
February – May PKR 100/KG
May – August PKR 80/KG
Average price PKR 97/KG
Rock salad  
August – November PKR 12O/KG
November – February PKR 110/KG
February – May PKR 120/KG
May – August PKR 110/KG
AVERAGE PKR 115/-
Kale, spar grass, muster leaf PKR 280/ KG – 350 /kg
LETTUCES 4 COLOR  
AUG-NOV PKR 80/-
NOV-FEB PKR 90/-
MAR-JUN PKR 70/-
JUN-AUG PKR 80/-
VEREAGE PRICE 80/KG TO 90/KG

 ESTIMATED SALES BASED ON ABOVE AVERAGE PRICE

5 % WASTAGE

ITEMS PER KGS PRODUCTION SALE
BROCCOLI 327/KGS  58752KGS 19,211,904.00
ICE BERG 97/KGS  47001 KGS 4,559,097.00
CABBAGE 80/KGS  97920KGS 7,833,600.00
ROCK SALAD 115/KGS  47001 KGS 5,405,115.00
LETTUCES 80/KGS 41965 KGS 3,357,200.00
ASPARAGUS 300/KG 37500 KGS 11,274,000.00
  • PROJECTED SALES is more than conventionally cultivated one acre. (ESTIMATED BY SMEDA PRE FEASIBILITY PAPER of one acre)
  • 10 % INCREASED IN EVERY YEAR

OPERATIONAL EXPENDITURE IN YEAR

 HYDROPONIC UNIT DAILY MONTHLY YEARLY
BROCCOLI   3 MONTH CYCLE 206,560.00
ICE BERG     197,440.00
SEED CABBAGE     167,440.00
ROCK SALAD     180,780.00
LETTUCES     160,700.00
FERTILIZER MASTER & MACRIO NUTIRENT  PKR 30/LTR +20/LTR = 174 LTR/ALTERNATIVE DAY IF NEC 4730 94,600.00 1,135,200.00
FOOD SUPPLIMENT     115,000.00
ELECTRIC CITY PKR 15/UNIT and 19 unit 285.00 8,550.00 102,600.00
WATER 4000 GALLON (RECYCLE) 0.40/gallon 650.00 15,600.00 187,200.00
LABOUR 1+1   24000.00 288,000.00
PACKING     157,600
TRANSPORTATION     96000.00
TOTAL     2,288,160.00

5 % INCREASE EVERY YEAR.

INCOME SCOPE

DESCRIPTION BROCCOLI ICEBERG KALE ROCKSALAD CABBAGE LETTUCES
REV 19,211,904 4,559,097 28,742,400 5,405,115 7,833,600 3,357,200
OP-EXP 960,595 227,954 1,437,120 270,255 391,680 167,860
G-INCOME 18,251,308 4,331,142 27,308,288 5,134,859 7,441,920 3,189,340
MAR/ADM 1,921,190 455,909 2,874,240 540.511 783,360 335,720
NET INCOME 16,330,117 3,875,232 24,434,048 4,594,347 6,658,560 2,853,620
10 YEARS PROJECTION OF BROCCOLI 10% INCREASE IN REVNUE AND 5 % OPS+ ADMIN EXPENSE
YEARLY N/INCOME YEAR 1 YEAR 2-3 YEAR 4-5 YEAR 6-7 YEAR 8-9 YEAR 10
BROCCOLI REV 19,211,904 23,054,284 28,115,140 33,738,168 40,535,801 44,589,381
EXP 2,288,160 2,402,568 2,526,696 2,652,830 2,785,471 2,924,744
INCOME 16,923,744 20,651,716 25,588,444 31,085,338 37,750,330 41,664,637

KEY assumption

Description Details
Revenue generation 10 %
Expenditure increase 5 %
Recover of investment 2.2 year
IRR 64 %
NPV  
Replacement of equipment  
Cooling pad 3 years
Cover sheet 4 years
GROWING PAD 5 years

COST of Construction system

Description Cost
GROWING UNIT 1,904,560.00
STRUCTURE 985,360.00
TOP FOR LIGHTS FIXATION 245,000.00
GERMINATION AREA 325,000.00
Ventilation system automatic 378,700.00
MISTING  CHINA 255,000.00
FOGGING 119,510.00
Dozing system automatic FRANCE 575,000.00
FERTILIZER ADJUSTER ITALY 1,575,000.00
Water controlling system automatic AND DISTRIBUTION USA 355,808.00
RO PLANT CHINA 675,000.00
WATER TANK LOCAL 175,000.00
LIGHTING ,PANEL,WIRING 488,152.00
CO2,OZAN 387,000.00
   
AUTOMATIC HUMIDITY, LIGHTING, CO2 ,TEMP CONTROLLING 202,860.00
Civil work flooring sides walls 145,000.00
HEATING SYSTEM 375,000.00
TDS, EC,PH,TEMP, MONITOR 55000.00
Labour 225,000.00
Total: 9,471,950.00
SERVICES CHARGES 6 % OF THE TOTAL COST 568,317.00
EXCHANGE RATE 1 USD = 156 PKR  
Civil work As requirement
Water source  as per your design and requirement At actual
RO PLANT AS PER REQUIRMENT
PHONETYPING SYSTEM ON DEMAND

ALL GOVT TAXES AND DUTIES WILL BE ADDED UP ACCORDINGLY. And cost may vary according to you area, growing unit size and construction.

Disclaimer:

The information memorandum is to introduce the subject matter and provide a general idea and information on the said project and prospective of future agriculture business. Although the material included in this document are based on experienced practicing farmer’s information’s, from authentic research papers of world known researchers, Dua Enterprises own experiences, world known our principal experiences and Data/information gathered from various reliable sources: Although, due care and diligence has been taken to compile this document, the contained information may vary due to any change in any concerned factors, and the actual results may differ substantially from the presented information.

INTRODUCTION OF DUA ENTERPRISES

Dua Enterprises

Dua Enterprises is commerce in Landscaping, Horticulture, Automatic Irrigation System,

Green House, hydroponic systems and in alternative energy with aim of enriching of environment, facilitate. Gardening dream into luxurious lawn and backyard garden, accomplish the needs of

green Pakistan and familiarize counter-strategy and induction of technology to cater to new emerging challenges of water shortage, power shortage, and food security.

Dua Enterprises is one of the leading Greenhouse and hydroponic, Aquaponics, Aeroponics and Vertical farming construction company having the ability to use most advanced technology to construct greenhouses for all kinds of growers from all over Pakistan as per their requirement. With our well-experienced staff we design, manufacture, and construct Greenhouses & hydroponic units considering the Pakistan environment and topography and known for its technological excellence in this field.

We specialize in greenhouse designing, assembling and manufacturing We provide a one-stop solution for greenhouse designs, structures, covering material, kits, weather-control equipment, irrigation equipment and material for greenhouse planting. Our products include Economical Plastic Tunnel, Multi-span Plastic Greenhouse, Poly-Film, polycarbonate, Greenhouse accessories, Shading Equipment, Ventilation Equipment’s, Cooling Equipment’s, Irrigation Systems, Planting Equipment’s, computer monitoring system hydroponic equipment like all type of NFT system, deep water system, etc.

Dua Enterprises is associated with world-known companies, Hortimax Green-tech Holland, Ridder Drive Systems B.V. Holland, Hydroponic Technology USA, AYS PROJE TAAHHÜT SAN. TİC. A.Ş.  Turkey’s greenhouse services China. Our principal not only assisted us with technology/ material but also participated physically in construction of projects and a joint venture in GCC countries.

We assist our clients in the construction of the greenhouse, hydroponics and drip irrigation, after-sale services, training of concern staff, facilitation in inputs, seeds, equipment’s, financial institutions /bank loans, marketing and sale of products in local market and foreign market especially Russia, GCC and China.

Our services

  • Designing
  • Landscaping
  • Automatic Drip Irrigation system.
  • Green House
  • Hydroponic system. Both vegetables & fodder.
  • Urban farming and Vertical farming for small scale growers or those who transform their rooftops and vacant rooms into growing units.
  • Agriculture equipment’s and Machinery

Thanks and Regards

Muhammad Shoaib Akbar

Dua Enterprises  

Landscaping, Horticulture, Automatic irrigation system Green house, Hydroponic system, Hydroponic fodder,Pivot irrigation system, Drone sprayer and Agro machinery

17 F HBFC Ichhra Apartment Rasool Park Ichhra Lahore Pakistan

Tel: 92 42 37501212 , 923341418925,92 300 4218953, Whatsapp 923341418925

shoaibdua2009@gmail.com

www.duaenterprises.net

 

 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

 

Climate control green house and Aquaponics are recognized most modern growing technology in the world today. This technology transformed conventional agriculture in to agriculture business. This technology is enable bulk production in all seasons. This is most economical, water saving and pest less and free from land hazardous due to soil less production system. Plants are hanging and grow in fish waste nutrient water in Aquaponics system.

 

The proposed project is a medium sized climate controlled greenhouse and Aquaponics growing unit. This unit is one ACRE (30 x90 FT ) is proposed to be growth of particularly four different vegetables like Lettuces, Broccoli, Asparagus ,kale all leaf vegetables and herbs.

 

The numbers of plantation each year are 104760 which are more than one 1 acre conventional pattern of cultivation system. The estimated production would be kg per SQFT or 37414 KGS of lettuces, and 52380 KGS Broccoli respectively in ideal Pakistani conditions and estimation revenue are PKR 4,096,833.00 and 17,128,260.00 per year.

 

Complete adherence to best agronomic practices is critical to the success of this project. Therefore, technical knowledge and experience of the entrepreneur and market access and knowledge, availability of recommend seeds, nutrients, inputs and required  PH, TDS, PMM, healthy environment  level of treated water  and continuous availability of electric city are absolutely necessary.

 

The present economic condition and projection of economic growth up to 2.4 % of GDP in manufacturing large scale and small scales industries, dollar fluctuation impacts and duty and taxation ratio on imports , registration efforts on trading  and services sector the Agricultural is the only taxation FREE area of business(at present). Govt support programs in agriculture area, low interest rate on loaning facilities, demand and supply gap and duties on vegetables (approx. 4 $ billion imports) provided a chance for progressive farmers and business institutions to invest in agriculture sector and fulfill the demand and supply gap and export theirs agriculture product to GCC, Russia, central Asia countries and tailor the opportunity around CPEC. China will not establish their own growing units in Pakistan but also import agriculture products in near future. In that favorable prospective agriculture will be played locomotive role in business as a profitable venture.

 

The cost of construction is little bit higher PKR 7,500.000.00  The project NPV is project at 37,833,568 with an IRR of 64 % and payback period is 3 years.

Disclaimer:

The information memorandum is to introduce the subject matter and provide a general idea and information on the said project and prospective of future agriculture business. Although the material included in this document are based on experienced practicing farmer’s information’s, from authentic research papers of world known researchers, Dua Enterprises own experiences, world known our principal experiences and Data/information gathered from various reliable sources: Although, due care and diligence has been taken to compile this document, the contained information may vary due to any change in any concerned factors, and the actual results may differ substantially from the presented information.

 

 

INTRODUCTION OF DUA ENTERPRISES

Dua Enterprises

Dua Enterprises is commerce in Landscaping, Horticulture, Automatic Irrigation System, Green House, Hydroponic, Aeroponics, Aquaponics, and vertical farming systems and in alternative energy with aim of enriching of environment, facilitate. Gardening dream in to luxurious lawn and backyard garden, accomplish the needs of green Pakistan and familiarize counter strategy and induction of technology to cater new emerging challenges of water shortage, power shortage and food security.

 

Dua Enterprises is one of the leading Greenhouse and all kind of Hydroponic, Construction Company having ability to use most advanced technology to construct greenhouses for all kind of growers from all over Pakistan as per their requirement. With our well experienced staff we designs, manufacture, and construct Greenhouses & hydroponic units considering the Pakistan environment and topography and known for its technological excellence in this field.

 

We specializes in green house designing, assembling and manufacturing We provide one stop solution for greenhouse designs , structures, covering material, kits, weather-control equipment, irrigation equipment and material for greenhouse planting. Our products include Economical Plastic Tunnel, Multi-span Plastic Greenhouse, Poly-Film, polycarbonate, Greenhouse accessories, Shading Equipment, Ventilation Equipment’s, Cooling Equipment’s, Irrigation Systems, Planting Equipment’s, computer monitoring system hydroponic equipment’s like all type of NFT system, deep water system etc. due to energy crisis and minimized the electricity cost we introduce Solar system inbuilt SOLAWRAP cover sheet. LoRa wan technology to monitor system operations, growth, market assessments through IoT senor and gateway system. Dua Enterprises assist our client in purchase of appropriate SEEDS, FERTILIZER, and NUTRIENTS.

Dua Enterprises is associated with world know companies, Hortimax Green-tech Holland, Ridder Drive Systems B.V. Holland ,Hydroponic Technology USA, AYS PROJE TAAHHÜT SAN. TİC. A.Ş.  Turkey greenhouse services China. Our principal not only assisted us with technology/ material but also participated physically in construction of projects and joint venture in GCC countries.

We assist our clients in construction of greenhouse, hydroponic and drip irrigation, after sale services, training of concern staff, facilitation in inputs, seeds , equipment’s, financial institutions /bank loans , marketing and sale of products in local market and foreign market specially Russia, GCC and China.

Our services

Designing

Landscaping

Automatic Drip Irrigation system.

Green House

Hydroponic, Aeroponics, Aquaponics  system. Both vegetables & fodder.

Urban farming and Vertical farming for small scale growers or those who transform their roof tops and vacant rooms in to growing units.

Agriculture equipment’s and Machinery

 

 

 

PURPOSE OF THE DOCUMENT

The objective of the pre-feasibility study is primarily to facilitate potential entrepreneurs, progressive farmers in project identification for investment and future prospective of modern agriculture emergence as an industry and its growth, profitability, sustainability as a profitable venture. The project pre-feasibility may form the basis of an important investment decision and in order to serve this objective, the document/study covers various aspects of project concept development, start-up, and production methodology, marketing, finance and business management.

 

PRESENT VEGETABLE GROWTH AND DEMAND

Vegetables constitute an integral component of the cropping pattern but the increasing pressure on food and cash crops has limited the area under vegetables to about 0.62 million ha, which is 3.1% of the total cropped area. Vegetables fit well in most farming systems due to shorter maturity period.

 

Vegetable crops are very important due to their higher yield potential, higher return and high nutritional value and suitability for small land holding farmers. Vegetables provide proteins, minerals, and vitamins required for human nutrition. In Pakistan, the daily per capita intake is low, being about 100 grams compared to the recommended consumption of about 285 grams. Mean every person is using 185 grams less than requirements, In view of population increase, land degradation and water scarcity, there is a need to substantially increase vegetable production in the years to come and to attain self-sufficiency as well as to increase the exportable surplus.

Agriculture constitutes the largest sector of Pakistan’s economy. This sector contributes 21.4% to its GDP, provides 40% employment and 60% exports. The horticulture sub-sector (Fruits and vegetables etc.) contributes 11% to the total value addition in agriculture sector. The current national horticulture exports are about 400 million US$ (2011-12). Export of major vegetables is presented, indicator were not favorable as compared to India or another Asia countries

 

PRE FEASIBILTY OF SMALL UNIT

 

DESCRIPTION Details
Size 30 x 90 FT  4180 SQFT
Plant to plant distance 6”
Unit size 26 x4x10 ft  26 x 3 x 18 FT
Walking passage 1 FT
Harvesting cycle 5 harvesting in year. Lettuces 7-8 harvesting.
Number of Plant 104760 in year
Water Holding Capacity 1.6 LTR
 
Growing pots with Drainage Recycle system of fish water
TDS level of water Less than 100
PH level of water 6.8 to 7
Humidity in tunnel 80 %
TEMP 26 OCs
Growing All vegetable leaf and herbs
  ORGANIC

 

 

The Aquaponics system is most successful growing system across the globe. Aquaponics is bulk organic production system and ROI is in less than 2 years. Presently organic VEG market prices are 20 to 30 % higher than to normal products. Similarly eatable fish and pharmaceutical production of fish oil also can enhance the profitability.

 

 

 

.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE AQUAPONICS  SYSTEM.

 

Aquaponics is a combination of aquaculture, which is growing fish and other aquatic animals, and this beneficial bacterium are gather in the spaces between the roots of the plant and converts the fish waste and the solids into substances the plants can use to grow.

The primary purpose of an Aquaponics system is to grow plants to feed humans. The purpose of the fish is to create waste bacteria which are to convert fish waste into plant as a fertilizer. Aquaponics is a simulated ecosystem, more precisely, a simulated freshwater ecosystem. Our proprietary system grows six times more per square foot than traditional farmingAquaponics uses 90% less water than traditional farming because Aquaponics recycles the water in the system, we can grow in droughts and areas with little water.  Plants have access to nutrients 24 hours a day, they grow faster. For example, the Aquaponics system speeds up the growth of lettuce from two months to one month. One of the quickest-yield vegetables you can get out of an Aquaponics system is lettuce. Reaching peak maturity at around 28 dayslettuce grows ideally in floating beds. It is very forgiving in terms of the minimum and maximum water temperatures and can survive a range from 25-85 degrees Fahrenheit.

 

They are an excellent fish for eating, boasting a high protein content and a low fish flavor, making them excellent for those who are not fond of eating fish. Catfish – There are a variety of species of catfish, TILAPIA those can be used in an Aquaponics system, but all species work well. Aquaponics is best source of income and profitability.

 

The primary benefits to Aquaponics are:

  • Environmentally responsible with low water usage and low power usage.
  • The primary inputs to the system are Fish food and water.
  • Little to no Chemical usage. …
  • Many of the plants that thrive in Aquaponics growing are very easy to grow.
  • Low susceptibility to pests and diseases.
  • There is no cheating on this with Aquaponics, because we can’t use chemical pesticides of any kind or our fish would die, period.
  • Even most approved organic pesticides would kill our fish. The fish act as the “canary in the coal mine”, and force the Aquaponics farmer to be honest. Even our tap water in Bend contains chloramine, which is an additive much like chlorine that would kill our fish.
  • Aquaponics mimics the natural symbiotic relationship between fish & plants.
  • Even traditional organic farms need to supplement their soil with fertilizers. These fertilizers can be bad for the over health of the soil and watershed.
  •  100% chemical free!
  • No G.M.O.
  • Another advantage of growing indoors is that system does not need spray.

 

 

 

SYSTEM FEATURES.

 

How often do I need to change my water in an Aquaponics system?

In a balanced system, essentially is never. You will need to add water to replace water lost to evaporation or transpiration (water lost by the plants as they grow) but the system is pretty much self-cleaning.

Sunlight:-

Growing system need at least 4-6 hours of good sunlight a day for your plants to grow well, however, your fish do not need sunlight, and in fact you’re better off not having any sun on your fish tank at all if possible.

Change of water:-

Cycling typically requires four to six weeks to complete.

How Much Fish:-

As a general rule of thumb for a media-based Aquaponics system, for every five 20 to 40 liters of fish tank water you can expect 500g of fish. Fewer pests are to deal with since we are growing indoors.

Fish food

No standard formula it is 1 % of fish weight. A few of the most popular homemade fish feeds are duckweed, worms, or larvae. Duckweed is a type of plant that grows very quickly. This plant has a lot of protein that can be great for your fish. Worms can be a great way to give your fish a bit of food.

 

Pure water and filtration:-

The usage of filters are generally excellent for producing high purity water, this water is inhibitory to nitrifying bacteriaNitrifying bacteria are photo-sensitive.

Artificial lighting:-

Especially to blue and purple LED are as an ultraviolet light. After they have colonized a surface, these lights pose no problem.

The fish to plants ratio

There is no standard formula that is directly dependent on the feeding rate in a properly maintained Aquaponics system. In general, fishes use about 80% of food and excrete the rest 20% as waste. The amount of feed fed to the fish daily is considered for per square meter of plant growing area.

Ammonia is alternative source of nutrient without fish: –

The alternative source of nutrient is called fish-less cycling – getting ammonia into your system by some means other than from fish.

PH LEVEL

System need be much less concerned about pH since the pH must only be kept in a range that facilitates cycling without consideration for the safety of the fish.  System should start targeting a pH level of 6.8 – 7.0 because the plants require a lower pH than the bacteria in order to take up nutrients. PH should not less than 6 % and not higher than 7 %.

 

USAGE OF D.KLOR

 D.Klor is natural vitamin for health of fish.

 

Beneficed Bacteria:-

To create beneficial bacteria used Zym-BAC

SEAWEED:-

Best seaweed MAXICROP QUOLA to activate nitrogen and nitrate cycle.

Nitrosomonas or nitrogen No2

The Usage of Nitrosomonas is 0.5 ppm. & nitrate level will not be increased from 10 ppm.

Nitropira

The usage of Nitropira is every 4-6 week or 10 days in fish tank.

Fish Varity

Any fish CAN BE USED, but if available TILAPIA, CRAP, CATFISH, BARRAMUNDI.

 

VEG Can be growing:-

Tomatoes ,peppers,cucumbers,beans,peas,squash,broccoli,cauliflower,cabbage ,any leafy lettuce , Pak choi , kale, Swiss chard, arugula ;Basil, Mint, Watercress, Chives, most common house plants.

 

The cucumber is considered a fruit but used as a vegetable. When cucumbers are grown in a Portable Farms Aquaponics System, they can be grown YEAR ROUND and sold to local customers as organic food for top prices.

 

Disadvantages:-

 

Aquaponics system is virtually expensive system, but it is very profitable system.

 

  • Expensive to setup
  • You need a greenhouse,
  • Water needs to be constantly monitored and cleaning.
  • Complicated for the amount of fish. System needs to keeping a healthy environment for the fish is where most of the complexity lies within the system. Water needs to be free of toxins (especially ammonia and nitrite) and also have enough oxygen for the fish you are keeping. This can involve adding extra aeration sources and making partial water changes to improve water quality.  Stocking fish at a lower density will in most cases reduce the pressures on a system and make it more tolerant to changing conditions and less likely to suffer from the above problems – though this means you will have less fish to eat.
  • Aquaponics requires electric energy inputto maintain and recycle water within the system. In most cases you will need to provide electricity to run a water pump and possibly aeration pumps as well. We run our 80w water pump for 5 minutes every hour to flood and drain our grow bed or vertical system. As we currently run the pump day and night this amounts to 2 hours of usage a day – so similar to having a light in your house (with an old style bulb/led lights) on for the same length of time.
  • If one or more components fail this could lead to the lossof fish and or plants. In this regard you are dependent on using reliable technology (and backup systems) to ensure that your fish, which require oxygen in the water, remain alive and healthy. Your plants are likely to be unaffected in the short term, as the growing medium will likely retain more than enough moisture, though if the fish are not provided enough oxygen, they can suffer and die. This is the same situation for aquaculture systems.

 

 

Flow diagram

 

 

Seeding–transplant-production-  water tank for fish –cleaning-irrigation— fertigation—recycling of water–harvesting –packing– logistic and sales

 

Cycle of growth & Harvesting

 

70-80 days

 

Yields per Green house for each vegetable in zone 10 (Pakistan)?

 

are ABOUT 800 GRMS APPROX. / plant.

 

How much water is required greenhouse?

 

5000 gallon is required water tank and with fresh water induction on daily base.

 

How much Electric city is required in green house?

Each fan consumed 1 unit PH x 4 x 5 units in hot days

Water controlling system 1 units per day

Water pump station: 9 units per day

Ro plant 8 units per day

Aquaponics system used 2 units per day.

Misting, fogging system and air & oxygen pump 1 unit per day when required

Per unit is available PKR 13.00

6-8 hours LIGHTING 4 UNIT IN DAY.

SEED

There is so much research that goes into Determinated/ Indeterminated the best seeds for Aquaponics  to reduce the probability of failed germination

PRICES: PKR 5000- 8600/1000 SEEDS.

Dua Enterprises is solo agent of SUBA ITALY All type of seed and CANDA BASED Nutrient Company for all type of Nutrients.

 

VEGETABLES AND HERB CAN GROW.

ROCKET SALAD, SPINACH, ASPASAGUS, MUSSCULAM, BROCCOLI, CABBAGE, CULIFLOWER, CLIPGROUND, VIDABLOGGER, ICEBERG, 5 VERITIES OF LETTUCE, WATERCRESS, MUSTARDLEAF, KALE AND LEAF VEGS.

HERB:

ANISE,BASIL,CATNIP,CHAMOMILE,CHERVIL,CHIVES,CILANTRO,CORIANDER,DILL,FANNEL,OREGANO,,PARSELY,ROSEMARY,SAGE,PARSLEY,TARRAGON,THYME.

DUA ENTERPRISES IS ASSIST CLIENT IN PURCHASE OF SEEDS, FERTILIZERS & NUTRIENTS.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ESTIMATION PRODUCTION

Items Number of plants PRO in kg /year In Tons
Broccoli
The average yield in Pakistan per flower 400 GRM 104760 /2= 52380 KGS 52.38 TONS
Cabbage
The average yield in Pakistan per flower 600 GRM 104760/1.5= 69940 KGS 69.94 TONS
Ice berg
The average yield in Pakistan per flower 370 GRM 104760/2.5= 41904 KGS 41.90 TONS
Rock salad
The average yield in Pakistan per flower 400 GRM 104760/2.5= 41904 KGS 41.90 TONS
Lettuces
The average yield in Pakistan 350 GRM 104760/2.80= 37414 KGS 37.41 TONS
KALE
THE AVERAGE YIELD IN PAKISTAN 175 GRM 104760/5.7= 18378 KG 18.37 TONS

 

 

Average pricing in market

ON CONSERVATIVE SIDE:

Broccoli Prices
August – November  PKR 350/KG
November to February PKR 400/KG
February – May PKR 280/ KG
May – August PKR 280/KG
Average price PKR 327/kg
Cabbage
August- November PKR 100/KG
November – February PKR 80/KG
February – May PKR 60/KG
May– August PKR 80/KG
Average price PKR 80/ KG
Ice berg
August- November PKR 90/KG
November – February PKR 80/KG
February – May PKR 80/KG
May – August PKR 60/KG
Average price PKR 77/KG
Rock salad
August – November PKR 12O/KG
November – February PKR 110/KG
February – May PKR 120/KG
May – August PKR 110/KG
AVERAGE PKR 115/-
LETTUCES  
AUG- NOV PKR 90/-
NOV-FEB PKR 110/-
FEB-MAY PKR 158/-
MAY-AUG PKR  80/-
AVERAGE PKR 109/-
Kale, spar grass, muster leaf PKR 280/ KG – 350 /kg

 

ESTIMATED SALES BASED ON ABOVE AVERAGE PRICE

5 % WASTAGE

ITEMS PER KGS PRODUCTION SALE
BROCCOLI 327/KGS  52380 KGS 17,128,260.00
ICE BERG 77/KGS 41904 KGS 3,226,608.00
CABBAGE 80/KGS 69940 KGS 5,595,200.00
ROCK SALAD 115/KGS 41904 KGS 4,818,960.00
LUTTCES 109/KGS 37414 KGS 4,096,833.00
KALE 280/KGS 18378 KG 5,145,840.00
Fish 150/kg 20,000 kg 3,000,000.00
  • PROJECTED SALES is more than conventionally cultivated one acre. (ESTIMATED BY SMEDA PRE FEASIBILITY PAPER )
  • 10 % INCREASED IN EVERY YEAR

 

OPERATIONAL EXPENDITURE IN YEAR

 HYDROPONIC UNIT DAILY MONTHLY YEARLY
BROCCOLI 32552.00
ICE BERG 19750.00
SEED CABBAGE 23556.00
ROCK SALAD 18700.00
LETTUCES 42552.00
FISH FOOD 445.00 13350.00 160200.00
FOOD SUPPLIMENT  FOR FISH 300.00 9000.00 108,000.00
ELECTRIC CITY PKR 13/UNIT and  30 unit 390.00 11700.00 140,400.00
WATER 5000 GALLON (RECYCLE) 0.40/gallon 50.00 5000.00 60,000.00
LABOUR 1+1 8000.00 192,000.00
CLEANING OF FLITRATION 14025.00 168,300.00
PACKING AND TRANSPORTATION 168,300.00
TOTAL 1,039,752.00

5 % INCREASE EVERY YEAR.

 

 

 

 

 

 

INCOME SCOPE

DESCRIPTION BROCCOLI ICEBERG KALE ROCKSALAD CABBAGE LETTUCES
REV 17,128,260 3,226,608 5,145,840 5,405,115 5,595,200 4,096,833
OP-EXP 1,039,752 989,608 1,039,752 1,039,752 989,608 1,039,752
G-INCOME 16,088,508 2,237,000 4,106,088 4,365,363 4,605,592 3,057,081
MAR/ADM 1,887,826 497,660 689,584 734,520 783,360 584,683
NET INCOME 14,200,682 1,739,339 3,416,504 4,594,347 3,630,843 2472,397
10 YEARS PROJECTION OF BROCCOLI 10% INCREASE IN REVNUE AND 10 % OPS+ ADMIN EXPENSE
YEARLY N/INCOME YEAR 1 YEAR 2-3 YEAR 4-5 YEAR 6-7 YEAR 8-9 YEAR 10
BROCCOLI REV 17,128,260 23,054,284 28,115,140 33,738,168 40,535,801 44,589,381
EXP 2,288,160 2,402,568 2,526,696 2,652,830 2,785,471 2,924,744
INCOME 16,923,744 20,651,716 25,588,444 31,085,338 37,750,330 41,664,637
Lettuces 4,096,833 4,506,516 4,957,167 5,452,883 5,998,121 6,597,933
EXP 1,624,735 1,787,208 1,965,928 2,162,520 2,378,772 2,616,649
income 2,472,098 2,719,308 2,991,239 3,290,363 3,619,349 3,981,284
Fish  20,000 kgs @ 150/kg 3,000,000 3,300,000 3630,000 3,993,000 4,392,300 4,831,530
Total 5,472,098 6,019,308 6,621,239 7,283,363 8,011,649 8,812,814

 

KEY Assumption

Description Details
Revenue generation 10 %
Expenditure increase 5 %
Recover of investment 2 year
IRR 64 %
NPV 37,833,568.00
Replacement of equipment 6 YEARS
Cooling pad 3 years
Cover sheet 4 years
DB 5 years

 

 

 

 

 

COST OF CONSTRUCTION OF SYSTEM

Description Cost
GI pipe Skelton, arms 2” with thickness 2mm, arch 2” wt 2mm, 25mm wt 2mm and 16 mm with thickness 2mm 165,230.00
POLYCARBONATE SHEET SUITABLE 746,500.00
Green shade 25,000.00
Ventilation system automatic 293,000.00
MISTING 78,000.00
Fogging 155,000.00
Tank, trays and equipment, 463,287.00
FLITRATION , Biological , clarifier, conical, thermometer 1,764,437.00
Water controlling system automatic 328,700.00
Water distribution system (recycle) 235,000.00
Growing system 1,629,760.00
Germination area 250,000.00
CO2,OZAN 287,000.00
Air purification 280,000.00
LIGHTING 223,750.00
Civil work flooring sides walls 85000.00
Electric panel and wiring 85000.00
TDS, EC,PH,TEMP, MONITOR 65000.00
Labour 275000.00
Total: 7,339,664.00
SERVICES CHARGES 6 % OF THE TOTAL COST 440,378.00
EXCHANGE RATE 1 USD = 156 PKR
Civil work As requirement
Water source  as per your design and requirement At actual
RO PLANT AS PER REQUIRMENT
SENOR CONTROL /MONITORING SYSTEM ON DEMAND ON DEMAND

ALL GOVT TAXES AND DUTIES WILL BE ADDED UP ACCORDINGLY.

75 % ADVANCE, 15 % IN MIDDLE, 10 % ON COMPLETION OF JOB.

Cost can be changed after physical visit of site.

All rate based on dollar , dollar fluctuation will determine rates.

Disclaimer:

PLEASE CONTACT UNDERSIGN FOR FURTHER INFORMATION

 

 

Muhammad Shoaib Akbar

Dua Enterprises  

Landscaping, Horticulture, Automatic irrigation system Green house, Hydroponic system, Hydroponic fodder, Pivot irrigation system, Drone sprayer and Agro machinery

17 F HBFC Ichhra Apartment Rasool Park Ichhra Lahore Pakistan

Tel: 92 42 37501212, 923341418925, 92 300 4218953, whatsapp 923341418925

shoaibdua2009@gmail.com

www.duaenterprises.net

 

 

 

 

 

 

Present environmental condition of Pakistan.

Pakistan ranks third among countries facing water shortage

Why Hydroponic fodder is ultimate solution of the new era and it is become more important facilitation system.  We are facing water shortage and our fertile land is converted in desert. Many districts in Punjab and Sindh will become parallel semi-arid, arid, and drought-prone regions by the year 2025.

“Everything is under threat as the country is becoming a desert with a rapid pace which will destroy all the developmental initiatives, The direct impact of water crisis has reduced crops, forest productivity and water level and it has increased livestock, wildlife and human being mortality rate. Said Dr. Murtaza Mughal, President PEW”

“According to Pakistan Water Partner (PWP), the total available surface water is about 153 million MAF and the total ground water reserves are approximately 24 MAF, of which a substantial part is pumped out without allowing for a natural research. The population of Pakistan will be doubled by the year 2025 and hence the consumption of the underground water will also add to the problem further aggravated by the factors of the global warming and the climate change. Reported by THE NATION”

According to a recent report by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Pakistan ranks third in the world among countries facing acute water shortage. Reports by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR) also warn the authorities that the South Asian country will reach absolute water scarcity by 2025.

Researchers predict that Pakistan is on its way to becoming the most water-stressed country in the region by the year 2040. Water crisis and food security for human as well as for livestock demand public and private sector collective effort for conservation of water, use modern techniques for irrigation and sustainable food security for all.

LIVESTOCK in Pakistan

LIVESTOCK IS an important sector in agriculture. It represents 52.2 per cent of agricultural value added and contributes 11 per cent to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Some 30-35 million rural people depend directly or indirectly on livestock for their livelihood. It has potential to absorb more rural labour to reduce rural poverty if proper attention is given to this sector. Pakistan is proud to be the fifth largest milk producer in the world. In addition to food products, livestock sector also provides food, milk, meat, eggs, manure (used as fuel or fertilizer), feathers, fiber, hides, and horns. In today’s world, their role in food security cannot be overstated. In order to achieve sustainable development of agriculture, it is important for the Government to give more attention to livestock and dairy sector. Realizing its significance to poverty alleviation, the government has started giving some attention to this sector but no big national or international investment have been seen in dairy, beef, mutton or carpet wool production sub-sectors of livestock.

[Nutrition:

Adequate nutrition is a major problem in livestock production in Pakistan. Without providing the required nutrition for the animal the genetic potential cannot be exploited. It is yet to be decided that how much nutrients our animals need to express their full genetic potential of productivity. To develop feeding standards of buffaloes, cattle, sheep and goat, no serious effort have been made. It is difficult for extension workers to recommend accurately to livestock farmers that what standard he has to follow to feed his cow for cost-effective milk and meat production. Some advancement has been made in this regard however there is a lot need to do for revolution in animal nutrition. The availability of green fodder is not sufficient.

 

 

 

Why hydroponic fodder is ultimate solution.

The Hydroponic Fodder as an alternative to conventional method of green fodder production, hydroponics technology is coming up to grow fodder for farm animals. Green fodders produced by growing seeds without soil but in water or nutrients rich solutions are known as hydroponics green fodder. The methods of hydroponic fodder production date back to the 1800, or earlier, from the ‘Hanging Gardens of Babylon’ era, when European dairy farmers fed sprouted grains to their cows during winter to maintain milk production and improve fertility. There is renewed interest in this technology due to shortage of green fodder in most of the Middle East, African and Asian countries. Fodder production cannot easily be increased due mainly to ever increasing human pressure on land for production of cereal grains, oil seeds and pulses. To meet this increasing demand for green fodder, one of the alternatives is hydroponic fodder to supplement the meager pasture resources. Compared to conventional methods of growing fodder, hydroponic fodder requires lesser space and produces highly nutritious fodder than soil farming.

 

 

 

 

 

Different type Seed used for fodder.

Fodders including maize, barley, oats, sorghum, rye, alfalfa and triticale can be produced by hydroponics. Others, including cowpea, horse gram, sun hemp, ragi, bajra, foxtail millet and Jowar have also been grown successfully by the use of hydroponics.

The Hydroponic Fodder Growing System in simple way we can say that it consists of a framework of shelves on which trays are stacked. After soaking, a layer of seeds is spread over the base of the trays.  During the growing period, the seeds are kept moist, but not saturated. They are supplied with moisture usually via spray irrigation. Holes in the trays facilitate drainage of excess water. The seeds will usually sprout within 24 to 48 hours after soaking and in 7 days have produced a 8 to 10 inch high grass mat.

Benefits and Advantages of Hydroponics Green Fodder Production: – There are many advantages of hydroponic farming especially growing green fodder.

  • Water Saving: The hydroponic system requires only 2 to 3 liters of water to grow 1 kg of quality green fodder when compared to 55 to 75 liters of water used in conventional farming.
  • Utilization of Minimal Land:Generally, hydroponic greenhouse requires marginal land to cover the area of 10 meters x 5 meters for 1000 kg of green fodder per day per unit. In traditional farming it requires 1 hectare land.
  • Less Labour Requirement:In hydroponics, the labour required for green fodder production is about 2 to 3 hours a day whereas conventional fodder production system requires continuous intense labour for cultivation to harvesting of the grass.
  • Less Time to Grow Green Fodder:To get the optimal growth stage of nutritious green fodder, it requires just over 7 to 8 days from seed germination to fully grown plant of 20 – 30 cm height. Constant supply of green fodder is possible round the year to meet the dairy industry demand.
  • Increased Nutritious Value:The green fodder grown from hydroponic system will be highly Nutritious as compared to conventionally grown fodder. So using, hydroponic grass, one can supply quality milk from dairy animals.
  • Minimal Loss of Green Fodder:Green fodder grown from hydroponic system will be fully utilized as there won’t be any loss of the green fodder during feeding. There would be wastage of chopped traditional green fodder or green grasses during consumption by the animal.
  • Use of pesticides, insecticides and herbicides: Traditional outdoor farming must rely on herbicides, fungicides and/or insecticides for optimum production. Hydroponic fodder is grown in a controlled environment without soil and, therefore, is not susceptible to soil-borne diseases, pests or fungi, thereby minimizing use of pesticides, insecticides and herbicides. An outbreak of pests or infections in hydroponically grown fodder can be quickly controlled by spraying the crops with appropriate pesticides or fungicides. Fresh and clean water should be used for irrigation as water-

borne plant diseases spread quickly.

 

  • Fodder yield: Fodder production is accelerated by as much as 25% by bringing the nutrients directly to the plants, without developing large root systems to seek out food. Plants mature faster and more evenly under a hydroponic system than a conventional soil based system. One kg of un-sprouted seed yields 8-10 kg green forage in 7-8 days. The hydroponics maize fodder yield on fresh basis is 5-6 times higher than that obtained in a traditional farm production, and is more nutritious.
  • Hydroponic fodder ready in seven days just grain and water.
  • Fodder quality: The crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and Ca content increased, but organic matter (OM) and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) content decreased (P<0.05) in the hydroponic green forage compared with the original seed on a DM basis Hydroponic fodder is a rich source of vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, biotin, free folic acid, anti-oxidants like β-carotene and minerals found that hydroponic fodder is also a rich source of bioactive enzymes, with the highest activities in sprouts being generally between germination and 7 days of age. The fatty acid concentration showed a significant (P<0.05) positive relationship with the growth period. The concentrations of linoleic, linoleic and stearic acids increased (P<0.05) linearly with sprouting time. Besides, helping in the elimination of the anti-nutritional factors such as phytate in the grains, hydroponic fodders are good sources of chlorophyll and contain a grass juice factor that improves the performance of livestock. The crop is free from antibiotics, hormones, pesticides, or herbicides.

 

  • Characteristics of hydroponic grown fodder 

 

  • Highly rich in vitamins, minerals, enzymes.
  • Hydroponic fodder is 80% to 85% digestible
  • Hydroponic fodder contains high quality protein
  • High energy content
  • High in moisture content that prevents colic.

 

  • Impact on animal production: Because hydroponic fodders are highly succulent, their intake varied between 15 to 25, 0.25 to 2.0, 1.5 to 2.0 and 0.1 to 0.2 kg/animal/day , or 1.0 to 1.5% of body weight reported that hydroponic barley fodder (HBF) had no effect on feed intake, body weight change, milk yield, and milk composition; however, HBF had positive effects on ewe’s health, mortality, conception rate and abortion. Hydroponic fodders are highly digestible, palatable and relished by the animals. Feeding vitamin-rich hydroponic green barley fodder did not increase bioavailability of nutrients for fattening calves. There was no effect of the fodder on average daily gain (ADG), found no adverse effects on ADG and feed conversion ratio (FCR) in goat kids and rabbit kittens hydroponic horse gram or sunn hemp fodder replacing 50% of a concentrate mixture. A 90-day feeding trial on 3-month-old weaned lambs showed that feeding hydroponic barley fodder improved (P<0.05) feed intake, ADG and FCR significantly compare to those fed a ration containing barley grains. Feeding hydroponic fodder to beef cattle resulted in leaner meat containing more omega-3-fatty acids and vitamins.  Observed significant increases in the digestibility of nutrients in lactating cows fed hydroponic fodder compared to those fed Napier bajra (NB-21) green fodder. Feeding of a total mixed ration (TMR) containing either hydroponic maize fodder (HMF) or Napier bajra hybrid green fodder (NBH) for 68 days to lactating dairy cows did not have any significant effect on digestibility of nutrients, except that the digestibility of CF and NFE was higher (P<0.05) in the HMF fed group (Naik et al., 2014). The daily milk yield was 8.0-14.0% higher in animals fed TMR containing hydroponic maize or barley fodder than those fed conventional green fodder. Further reported that feeding of hydroponic maize fodder by replacing 50% maize grains in the concentrate mixture did not have any adverse effect on nutrient utilization and performance of low yielding lactating cows. Besides increased milk yield, conception rate, herd health and longevity were also improved. Furthermore, it must follow that improved animal health stemming from higher quality hydroponic fodder will reduce veterinary costs.
  • Main advantage Hydroponic fodder, one is assured of the quality and quantity of fodder that is being consumed. This consistency of feed can lead to better-tasting end products of consistent quality, which is one of the major goals of the beef producers. Similarly consistency in feed can also increase the quality of meat and other products of swine and poultry. Hydroponic fodder production is a way to substantially improve the quality of animal products.
  • Nutritional Energy: Per kg, sprouting fodder holds 12.7 megajoules (mj) of nutritional engery. The total amount of digestible matter in fodder is 91% with on average over 20% protein and 20% starch along with all the trace elements needed such as Potassium, Calcium, Copper, Cobalt, Magnesium, Sodium, Iron, Manganese, Zinc, Molybdenum, Manganese & Selenium.
  • Because birds are the only creatures whose systems are designed to process grain, monogastrics (horses, rabbits) and particularly ruminants (cattle, sheep, goats, deer), struggle to digest hard, dry feed; our system enables them to gain the benefits of fresh sprouting fodder, which is precisely what their systems have been designed to process.

 

 

Disadvantages

 

  • Hydroponic fodder heavily infested with Aspergillums clavatus should not be fed to dairy/beef cattle. Animals may develop posterior ataxia, knuckling of fetlocks, dragging of hind legs, high stepping in the hind limbs, stiff gait, tremors, progressive paresis, hypersensitivity, recumbency, clonic convulsions, decreased milk yield.

 

  • Loss in total dry matter: A number of studies reported that sprouting resulted in 7-47% loss in DM from the original seed after sprouting for a period of6-7 days of growth, mainly due to respiration during the sprouting process. Seed soaking activates enzymes that convert starch stored in endosperm to a simple sugar, which produces energy and gives off carbon dioxide and water, leading to loss of DM with a shift from starch in the seed to fiber and pectin in the roots and green shoots.

 

 

Summary

Traditional way of fodder cultivation cost Hydroponic cultivation
Land cost Structure
Agriculture machinery, equipment. Water system
Infrastructure required for pre and post harvesting Light
Handling Aeration
Transportation Seed
Water
Fuel & lubicants
Fertilizer, insecticides, pesticides and weedicides
Growing from seed 45-60 days Ready in 7 days
PKR 8/ kg PKR 3-4/kg
Less nutrient High nutrient.
25-30 cost effective in milking cost.
1000 kg daily production in 11 acre 1000 kg daily production 45×30 meter room.

of land, in addition to investment in agricultural machinery, equipment, infrastructure required for pre- and post-harvesting, including handling, transportation and conservation of fodder. It also requires labour, fuel, lubricants, fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, and weedicides. On the other hand, hydroponic fodder production requires only seed and water as production inputs with modest labour inputs. Hydroponics minimizes post-harvest losses, with no fuel required for harvesting and post harvesting processes. Moreover, in hydroponic systems it takes only 7-8 days to develop from seed to fodder while it takes 45-60.

 

Nutrient value of different seeds

 

 

Maize seed

 

Different fractions of maize plant and whole mixed fodder were analysed for their chemical composition and dry matter digestibility (DMD). Highest crude protein (CP) values were found in leaves as compared to the other portions. Younger plants contained more CP as compared to the matured ones. The crude fiber (CF) content of various fractions of the plant ranged between 19.12 to 35.60% with maximum values in the bottom portion of the stem. Matured plants contained more CF. The analysis of cell wall constituents indicated that the maximum values for neutral detergent fiber (NDF) were found in the bottom portion and in the whole mixed plant. The highest levels of acid detergent fiber (ADF) were observed in bottom fraction followed by whole mixed plant, whereas the other plant fractions did not show any differences. Variation in acid detergent lignin (ADL) values existed in different fractions of the plant and the lowest were in the top portion of the stem. Although there existed a variation in the mineral composition of different fractions of the plants, the results were non-significant. Maximum DMD was found in leaves followed by the whole mixed plant, middle and bottom portion of the stem. The values of DMD were higher in younger plants as compared to the matured ones. It may be concluded that younger plants and the upper portion of the plants have a higher nutritive value as compared to the matured plants and lower portion of the plants.

 

Barley seed

 

Barley grain was sprouted hydroponically in the light at 21°C for 1–7 days. Samples were freeze-dried, ground through a 1-mm screen and analyzed for proximate nutrients, amino acids, minerals and fatty acids. During sprouting, weights of dry matter (DM), starch (NFE) and gross energy decreased markedly (P < 0.05). A smaller reduction in protein weight also occurred. Weights of ash and fat increased slightly and fibre increased markedly with increased sprouting time. Among the amino acids, weights of cystine, glutamic acid and proline decreased, whilst aspartic acid and alanine increased. There was a slight gain in Cu, Na and Zn due to the mineral content of the water source. The fatty acid concentration showed a significant (P < 0.05) positive relationship with growth period.

These results indicate that the younger the sprout, the greater its nutrient weight. Thus, it would appear that Day 1 sprouts are nutritionally superior to Day 4 sprouts which are currently being fed to livestock. It would also appear that field-sprouted grain, which is analogous to Day 1 sprouts in terms of gross physical appearance, would have a minimal loss of nutrients.

Soya Bean

Soya bean seeds were sprouted hydroponically in the light at 21°C for 1–7 days. Samples were freeze-dried, ground through a 1-mm screen and analyzed for proximate nutrients, amino acids, minerals and trypsin-inhibitor content. During sprouting, quantities of energy, dry matter (DM), total lipids (TL) and starch (NFE) decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Protein weight did not change during sprouting. Weight of ash increased slightly and weight of fibre increased markedly during sprouting. Among the amino acids, weight of glutamic acid decreased whilst weights of aspartic acid and leucine increased. There was a slight gain in weights of Cu, Na and Zn, these being related to the mineral content of the water source. Weight of trypsin inhibitor (TI) decreased cubically with increased sprouting time.

Although nutrients are lost to a lesser degree during the sprouting of soya beans as compared with barley, the substantial reduction in TL may mean that the energy value is more adversely affected. It is not known whether the decrease in TI is great enough to render the sprouts safe for direct consumption by farm animals.

 

 

Technology Features

Fodder Alternative – A highly nutritious and digestible fodder is provided daily on your property to be used in conjunction with other feed or as an alternative to them. The cost per kilogram is very competitive – depending largely upon the current prices of the seed grain.

  • Drought Proofing– The conversion of seed grain into succulent fodder by a factor of six to one has much appeal during drought or normal dry summer periods.
  • Management Tool– To have such a fodder available 365 days of the year allows farm managers to drop lambs, calves, etc at an optimal time to meet market peaks, as well as having the comfort of being able to produce fat stock that has a consistent quality.
  • Productivity in a Shed– Owners of small properties now have the means to economically increase their stock numbers without having to lot feed or the need to purchase additional loan.

 

Daily operation of the fodder growing revolves around 5 main tasks:

  1. Harvesting mature fodder is pulled out of the trays as a complete single mat. Feeding them to animals.
    2. Cleaning Trays It is critical that the trays and all equipment are thoroughly cleaned to reduce the risk of mould and other infections. A soapy water or water with bleach is commonly used to achieve this.
    3. Sowing New grain, which has been soaked for 24 hours, is sown into the trays. This grain is sown in an even layer 2cm deep.
    4. Cleaning & washing the grains for soaking
    5. Disinfecting and soaking grains for next day sowing

Day 0 – 1 of cycle – Pre-soaked swollen grains evenly spreading in the plastic tray, trays stacked on shelves
Day 2 of cycle – Seeds have begun to sprout roots and head after being soaked for 24 hours before planting.
Day 4 of Cycle – Tremendous growth in root bed occurs before growth of shoots/ heads.  Healthy root beds will create a mass that resembles that of a tight knit carpet lifting the seed and shoot from the tray.
Day 6 of Cycle – Root bed is almost fully developed and growth transfers to shoots that have grown to 1″-2″ in overall height.
Day 7 of Cycle – Feeding Day – Growth so fast you can nearly see it!

Fully developed shoots and root bed ready for feeding.  Healthy root beds are hard to separate and shoots are 8″-10″ in overall height.  From simple seed and water comes healthy natural feed with no fertilizer and hormones added.

After the mat is removed from the tray, it can go into a feed mixer or be hand-fed to livestock. Livestock will eat the whole thing: seeds, roots, and grass. There is minimal waste. Livestock may not eat the fodder initially because it is novel, but should soon learn to eat it with relish.

 

 

 

Benefits to Dairy Cattles

  • When fed 15kg per day of fresh hydroponic fodder, the average difference between the test and control groups was +11% milk yield, and +23% milk quality.
  • Extended trials over 29 years by Ohio State University indicate that dairy cows fed with freshly mown grass outperformed cattle fed grass that was allowed to dry with an increased milk yield of 28%. Hydroponic fodder is the equivalent of freshly mown grass every day of the year. The fodder is digested more easily in the rumen, being over 80D, enabling the digestive system to conserve energy during digestion, and using the “saved” energy to both maintain condition and fertility, and improve milk yield & Milk Quality with fat.

Benefits to Beef animals

  • Trials conducted in NZ demonstrated improved weight gain in fodder-fed cattle: • Cattle in fed 15kg of fodder per day, over 84 days, had a total live weight gain over the testing period of 41% more than group 2 (normal feed) .
  • In addition the cost of feeding the treated group was SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER than the control group due to the lower cost of fodder production.
  • The cost would be even lower when compared to feeding conserved forages such as silage.

 

Benefits to goats  

Goats have a well-developed digestive system; Fodder closely replicates what goats would naturally forage for in the wild.  An improvement in feed efficiency will lead to higher quality production of milk, meat and fiber.

Consuming fresh fodder will provide several advantages to goats, including:

  • Faster weight gain and better quality meat
  • High-grade fiber
  • Improved milk production and quality
  • Improved hoof health
  • Improved fertility

Fodder Benefits As Poultry Feed

Poultry feed is some of the most expensive livestock feed on the market, making hydroponically grown fodder an easy choice for poultry producers. Sprouted fodder is considered a complete ration for poultry and contains all of the essential nutrients, vitamins and minerals needed for optimal meat and egg production.

Incorporating fodder into poultry diets will result in these benefits:

  • Better quality eggs with deeper yolk color
  • Enhanced egg taste
  • Reduced sticky droppings
  • Higher quality meat with better texture
  • Improved health and energy levels

 

Benefits to Rabbits

  • Faster weight gain
  • Higher fertility
  • Ween from mothers faster
  • Reduced scours when weening

 

Costing

 

Introduction of Dua Enterprises

We are Pioneer in Hydroponic Growing System Since 2012. Dua Enterprises is technology driven ISO 9000 company that specializes in the development, manufacturing and marketing of hydroponic fodder systems. This system grows SEED TO FEED in 7 DAYS. We offer the right size system to meet your needs at the right price. You shouldn’t have to pay for a system that produces more feed than you need.

 

DUA ENTERPRISES

17 F HBFC ICHRA APPARTMENT RASOOL PARK ICHRA LAHORE PAKISTAN

PH: 923341418924,923004218953, 9245237501212

Shoaibdua2009@gmail.com

www.duaenterprises.net

Concept of Greenhouse

 

Greenhouses are frames of the inflated structure covered with a transparent material in which crops are grown under controlled environment conditions. … The primary environmental parameter traditionally controlled is temperature, usually providing heat to overcome extreme cold conditions. Greenhouse Technology is the technique of providing favorable environmental conditions to the plants. It is rather used to protect the plants from adverse climatic conditions such as wind, cold, precipitation, excessive radiation, extreme temperature, insects and diseases.

 

 The origin of life on earth explains the basic concept of the greenhouse. Before the origin of any living organism on the earth, the temperature of earth was around -18°C due to the absence of an atmosphere between earth and sun. Various gases namely nitrogen (N), carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), oxygen (O2), nitrous oxide (N2O), etc. available inside earth came out through spaces between plates of earth and formed a porous layer around earth, known as atmosphere. The newly formed atmosphere around the earth had a unique property that it absorbed ultraviolet and far-infrared radiation coming from the sun and allowed only short-wavelength (0.3-3 μm) radiation emitted by the sun to reach the earth surface. Further, the atmosphere did not allow long-wavelength (> 3.0 μm) radiation emitted by the earth. Hence, the trapped thermal energy raised the temperature of the earth and air between earth and atmosphere. The rise of the temperature of the air is known as the greenhouse effect. According to Encyclopedia 2000, the greenhouse effect for the environment is defined as:

 

Greenhouse Effect – the term for the role the atmosphere plays in insulating and warming the earth’s surface. The atmosphere is largely transparent to incoming solar radiation. When this radiation strikes the earth’s surface, some of it is absorbed, thereby warming the earth’s surface. The surface of the earth emits some of this energy back out in the form of infrared radiation. As this infrared radiation travels through the atmosphere, much of it is absorbed by atmospheric gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and water vapor. These gases then re-emit infrared radiation, some of which strikes and is absorbed by the earth. The absorption of infrared energy by the atmosphere and the earth called the greenhouse effect, maintains a temperature range on earth that is hospitable to life

Gypsophila Greenhouse Features

Growing Great Cut Gypsophila Crops is from small to large flower sizes, and in various growing conditions, today’s varieties excel. Gypsophila’s is durable application comes from its vast variety in Pakistan and rest of the world. The incredible range of types and styles provide sought-after features that answer all tastes and needs. From small to large flower sizes, to different lengths and weights in stems, to selections for growers’ wide variety of soils and climates, today’s Gypsophila excel. High yields, extended shelf life and broad market appeal add to the long benefits list of this cut flower favorite.

Breeding has focused on incorporating characteristics such as resistance to over-saturated soil, vigorous re-growth after cut-back, high productivity, high disease resistance, low supplemental lighting requirements, enhanced performance in hot weather and more, making it easy for growers to select the best varieties to ensure success in their specific growing conditions and locations.

From the original tiny white blooms, a huge colour array now offers unending choices, from pure, brilliant white and ball-shaped to flexible stems on a wide canopy, to pure white, bright white and white touched with a hint of green or yellow, and even now in shades of pink.

Flower sizes range from five to 14 mm, none less impactful than the first. Profusions of flowers are possible year-round, ideal for innovative and attractive flower combinations.

REQUIRED STRATEGIES
whether you are producing gypsophila in greenhouses, tunnels or open fields, a few standards hold true for quality gypsophila. Planting,  establishment of plants, pinching, using supporting nets, application of excess lighting according to season and variety, and the regular irrigation and plant protection treatments should all be part of a successful strategy.

SOIL
Gypsophila thrives in all types of drained soils. Light soils are preferable, as are detached media such as volcanic ash.

RECOMMENDED TEMPERATURE
Provide temperatures of 15 C during night and 25 C during the day. Gypsophila is sensitive less than 5 C.

LIGHTING
when daylight is less than 12 to 13 hours, depending on the environment’s temperature and light intensities, employ a lighting system of 100 lux.

HORMONES
Spray 150 ppm of the hormone gibberellic acid (GA), typically after the pruning stage and when growth is delayed.

IRRIGATION
Water thoroughly using two to three drip lines and an overhead system. Gypsophila is a low maintenance plant perfectly in fact; it requires no water during the fertilization process. It’s only in long periods of dryness that the plants require a little water

PLANTING DENSITY
planting density depends on the variety, but in general, six to eight plants per square meter net, or alternatively 40,000 to 50,000 plants per hectare equals 10,000 square meters gross. Bed width should be one meter wide, and the paths between beds should be a 0.50 meter.

EXPECTED YIELD
much like planting density, yield depends on the variety and the number of flushes. Typically you can expect an average of approximately 35,000 to 50,000 branches per flush/dun am or 350,000 to 500,000 branches per flush/hectare. Commercial flowering flushes per year will be two to 2.5, meaning a total of 70,000 to 100,000 flowers per dun am/year or 700,000 to 1,000,000 flowers per hectare/year.  In greenhouse highest productive (78 flower stems m-2) and qualitative (1027 g m-2) results is achievable. Significant differences were evidenced among cultivars: ‘Paniculata’ produced the maximum amount (103 flower m-2) of stems; ‘Dana’ supplied those with the highest average weight (1705 g m-2).

 

FLOWERING FLUSH DURATION
Gypsophila typically flowers about three months after planting or pruning, depending on the variety and the geographical and physical location of the crop.

 

AFTER SECOND FLUSH
After the second flush, prune plants, usually two to three cm above ground level. Apply one to two gibberellic acid (GA) hormone sprays. Use supporting nets (two nets and a number of lengthwise cords). Finally, provide the regular irrigation and spray treatments according to requirements.

 

HARVESTED FLOWER TREATMENT
quickly places the harvested flowers in solution or water. The solution should consist of: STS (silver thiosulfate) – 0.15 per cent + T.O.G.3 – 0.15 per cent + sugar – five per cent in the summer, and seven per cent in the winter (or alternatively Vitax 21 – 0.15 per cent corresponding to STS, Vitax 33 – 0.15 per cent corresponding to T.O.G3 + sugar five to seven per cent depending on the season, or another option, using Forever Gypsophila – 0.5 per cent + sugar).

 

 

 

 

GROWING MEDIUM OF DIFFERENT VARITIES

  • FESTIVAL SERIES
  • PANICULATA
  • REPENS

In greenhouse Gypsophila growth is optimal in container plant and even for its ability to add interest in flower beds. Use a well-drained, sterile peat/perlite mix with a pH range of 6.0 to 6.5. Maintain EC levels of 1.5 to 1.8. Gypsophila seeds are both annual and perennial, and are sown outside in March or April, if planting between April and May; cultivate Gypsophila in a greenhouse, prior to planting outdoors. When putting the plants in a pot or moving them to an alternative location, it’s beneficial to know how much space the plants require.

Certain species will necessitate different amounts of space. For example, Gypsophila repens grows in a wide network and as such, demand around 50 cm of space between each plant. Without this space, they won’t be able to optimally expand. But variety of seed determined the distance between plant to plant and row to row.

The Festival series provides all of those benefits and more, offering the versatility to perform as a superior cut flower as well. Festival varieties flower early under long day conditions, and offer an extended flowering period covering spring, summer and autumn. With both semi and double flowers in the series, Festival produces tiny delicate flowers (less than half an inch) in clusters on plants ranging from 12 to 16 inches tall. Growth habits range from appealingly compact to medium to upright and vigorous.

 

Seven colors make up the series, in soft to bright shades of pink and white. Three of the newest colors are Pink Splash, White Flare and Pink Lady. Pink Splash produces medium-sized pink clusters of flowers eight to 10 weeks after planting. Growing only 12 to 14 inches tall, it stays appealingly compact. White Flare bears prolific beautiful clusters of small, glowing white semi-double flowers 12 to 14 weeks after planting. It has a petite, compact habit, reaching only 14 to 16 inches tall. Pink Lady is a vigorous grower producing beautiful large, deep pink, semi-double flowers 11 to 13 weeks after planting.

All of the Festival varieties work well as standalones, in combinations or as cut flowers. They are hardy in Zones 4 to 10.

 

Gypsophila paniculata is used as a cut flower. Its beautiful inflorescence (panicle) is formed by many white or pink coloured, small flowers. This is a species native to the Mediterranean, which means that it is suited to intermediate environmental conditions for its natural growth, and although, being a long day plant, it needs a great number of light hours to bloom. These plants show excellent vegetative and floral development in non-natural growth condition cycles as long as their thermic and lighting needs are covered. It can be grown continuously with 2 to 3 cycles of flowering per year and can last 2 to 3 years. It needs sandy or porous soil in order to regulate its moisture uptake, while excess water can seriously harm it. small secondary stems mean that it needs a guide, which is usually provided by several meshes at different heights. Vegetative development out of season is improved by the application of growth regulators e.g. gibberellins. Pests and diseases can be controlled. Stems are harvested when 30 or 40% of the flowers have started to open, although similar good quality results can be obtained by applying artificial opening techniques when only 5% of the flowers are open.

 

Special Note: that these are general guidelines. You will need to make necessary adjustments when growing in different climatic conditions and different agricultural practices.

Greenhouse DESGIN for Gypsophila growth

To attained maximum and minimum air value, the roof top open greenhouse is recommended for growth of the Gypsophila in greenhouse. In heated environments preferable structure is construct with GI metal and PE cover, Roof vent typology affected greenhouse air temperature and relative humidity (RH) as well as crop yield and quality. During summer, the maximum values of air temperature (38.7°C) and the minimum values of RH (31.2%) are mandatory in the greenhouse with chimney top vents. In the same period, the lowest temperature increases (+7.2°C) and hygrometric reductions (1 0C) is recorded in the structure equipped with seagull-wing vents and two head-ventilators. In the latter greenhouse

Similarly to monitor the internal climate regular climate data and sunrise/sunset data are essential through thermo-hygrometric sensors connected to a data logger, analyzed with platform software and compared to the external values.

 

Costing and profitability scope

SL Description      
1 Size 210×210 FT
2 Cultivation area 190×210 FT
3 Planting 50 CM 35 lines 12,215
4 Stems per plant 8-13 stems
5 seed Indeterminated
6 Harvesting 2-3    
7 Number of stems in year 12,215 x 13 stems 158,795 x 3 = 476,385 stems
8 Bunches 5-10 stems 476,385 / 5 = 95277 bunches
9 Pricing PKR 36 to 57/- 57 x 95,277 5,430,789.00
10 Cost of production PKR 188,336.00 per acre
11 Heating system on natural gas PKR 175,000.00
12 Electricity in greenhouse 31 unit x 13×30= PKR 12090 x 12= 145,080.00
13 Extra Labour PKR 144,000.00
14 Total cost PKR 652,416
15 Per bunch cost PKR 6.85
16 Per stem cost PKR 1.37
17 Difference between cost / revenue  
18 Revenue PKR 5,430,789.00
19 cost 652,416.00
20 Market commission 10 % 543,078.00
21 Gross profit 4,235,294.00
22 Income Tex 17% 719,999.00 or PKR 1.51/stem
23 Net profit 3,515,295.00
24 IRR 5 YEARS
25 Per stem revenue PKR 11.4
26 Per stem cost PKR 1.37 + 1.51=  PKR 2.88
27 Per stem net profit PKR 8.53
28 International market price USD 0.22 to 0.37/ stem

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The proposed Smart Agriculture facilitations

 

The proposed smart agriculture is based on LoRa technology, which is widely acceptable in greenhouse and outside cultivation within 5 KM radius monitoring. Through this system we can collect data, store data and monitor/operate through computer and mobiles.

 

Photosynthesis System

 

Photosynthesis System is a portable, single-handed tool that measures photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, stomatal conductance, PAR and internal CO­2. Light-weight and durable, the CI-340 was designed for field use. The optional accessory modules allow researchers to control CO2, H2O, temperature, light intensity, and measure chlorophyll fluorescence, while the ten different customized chambers accommodate any leaf size, including conifer needles and cacti. Direct chamber connection to the CO2/H2O gas analyzer reduces measurement delay and enables rapid measurement of gas exchange with minimal delays. This equipment will supply on demand.

 

 

Supplementary   light   is provided to

chrysanthemum for delaying the blooming in year round

cut flower production. For giving artificial lighting, a

combination of fluorescent light and incandescent bulb was

used. The intensity of  artificial light was about 150 Lux.

This was  achieved  by suspending overhead 40 Watt tubes

and 40 Watt bulbs hung  about 2 meters above the tip of

plants.  50 pots of chrysanthemum  in  vegetative  stage

were kept and the lights were kept ON for four hours from

10 p.m. to 2 a.m. every night so that long continuous dark

period is interrupted and divided into  two portions non of

which is long enough  (9½ hours) to initiate flower  buds.

Supplementary   light   is provided to

chrysanthemum for delaying the blooming in year round

cut flower production. For giving artificial lighting, a

combination of fluorescent light and incandescent bulb was

used. The intensity of  artificial light was about 150 Lux.

This was  achieved  by suspending overhead 40 Watt tubes

and 40 Watt bulbs hung  about 2 meters above the tip of

plants.  50 pots of chrysanthemum  in  vegetative  stage

were kept and the lights were kept ON for four hours from

10 p.m. to 2 a.m. every night so that long continuous dark

period is interrupted and divided into  two portions non of

which is long enough  (9½ hours) to initiate flower  buds.

 

SALIENT FEATURES OF GREENHOUSE

 

ITEMS DETIALS
ONE ACRE SIZE IS VARY IN DIFFERENT PART OF PAKISTAN semi commercial unit. 210 FT X 210 FT OR 210 FT X 198 FT
SQFT 44100 SQFT
DESIGN MULTI SPAN 30 FT X 210 FT X 7 SPANS open roof top
EQUIPMENT PLACED AREA. 25 X 100 FT
RAIN DRAINAGE SYSTEM GI GUTTER SYSTEM
GREEN HOUSE STRUCTURE  FOR 80- 12O KMPH WIND GI PIPE TUBE PILLARS 3” WITH THICKNESS 2MM,ARCH WT 2” WT 2MM, SUPPORT BARS 2” WT 2MM, 25MM WT 2 MM AND 16MM WT 2MM
COVER SHEET, PLOY FLIM OR POLY CARBONATE SHEET 200 MICROON , 5 LAYER

 

SHEET FAXING PROFILE AND ZIGZAG WIRE
GREEN SHADE FR, BOTH AUTOMATIC OR MANUL INSIDE OR OUT SIDE GREEN HOUSE AS DEMAND ALONG WITH SIDE WALLS
CIVIL WORK CONTREATE SIDE WALLS, TUFF TILES FLOORING OR SAND MUD WITH FABRIC SHEET AS PER LEVEL OF LAND.
DOOR ALUMIUN SLIDING DOOR
VENTILATION & COOLING SYSTEM  FOR 617400 CFM COOLING PAD, EXHUAST FAN, CIRCULATING FAN
MESTING & FOGGING, AIR PRUFICATION, INSECT SPARY IMPORTED SYSTEM
FERTILER INJECTION (FRETIGATION SYSTEM) FRENCH OR CHINESE DOZING SYSTEM per BLOCKS
WATER CONTROL SYSTEM AUTOMATIC WATER CONTROLLING SYSTEM  18 ZONES
NUTIRENT WATER DISTRIBUTION AND STORAGE TANKS NUTIRENT WATER DISTRIBUTION AND RECYCLING SYSTEM
WATER PUREFICATION SYSTEM SCAN FILTER, MUD AND SAND CLEANING SYSTEM
CO2 CO2 SYSTEM
Cos SYSTEM AND AIR SYSTEM OXGEN SYSTEM, AIR SYSTEM
HUMIDITY AND DEHUMIDIFY HUMIDITY AND DEHUMIDITFY
SMART EQUIPMENT  senor system with monitoring and operation
HEATING SYSTEM TO MAINTAIN TEMPRATURE
LIGHTING SYSTEM LED LIGHTING SYSTEM

 

General Information of TUNNEL

Description Details
Low tunnel Normal used DEC-FEB to cover crop. Length 210 x 2-3 x 2 FT
D type tunnel D type is commonly used, the size of tunnel is

Length 210 x widths 6 x 8 height FT number in one acre 14 for vegetables like Cucumber, melons, watermelons, bitter gourds, squashes, and snake gourds etc. can be grown in these tunnels.

Small arm tunnel (walk in tunnel) Small arm tunnel is known as a walk in tunnel

210 x 10 x 8 FT 14 Walk-in-tunnels provide high yield compared to Low tunnels. The tunnel is suitable for growing tomatoes, cucumbers, sweet pepper and hot pepper.

High arm tunnel High arm tunnel is known as a  the size is L 210 x 25-30 x 14 FT 7 tunnel in acre , number of bed 6 and number row are 12.High tunnels give maximum yield of crops and make easy soil preparation, picking, spraying due to its width and height. The tunnel is suitable for growing tomatoes, cucumbers and sweet peppers.
Special Tunnel high arm Special design for snow fall areas and for fruits tree, SIZE is L 210 x W 25-30 x H 22-25, this special design for high snow and windy areas. Sustained 80-120 km/h wind below.
Climate Control tunnel Climate control for hydroponic, aeroponic and aquaponic system, size of tunnel normally is L 210 x W 25-30 x H 14 FT equipped with Cooling Pad, Exhaust Fan, Circulating Fan, Misting and Humidity system and controller, Fertilizers injection system, Drip irrigation to totally automatic watering system, R.O.plant, water Sterilization system, water Filtering system, HIP, HPS and growing UV Lighting system, Smart controlling system along with sensors, Co2, Ozona, oxygen and PLC system, Germination system etc.

 

 

 

 

 

 

TUNNEL CONSTRUCTION COST /ACRE

Description Details
Walk in tunnel  number of 14 tunnel 32mm  8,76000.00
Walk in tunnel 25 mm 1.2 thickness 7,35000.00
High Arm Tunnel numbers of tunnel 6 1,975,800.00
HIGH ARM TUNNEL 3″ AND ARCH 2″ WITH THICKNESS 1.2 MM PKR  SPECIAL TUNNEL 2985800.00
Calamite   control tunnel numbers of tunnel 6 6,999,700.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONSTRUCTION COST OF MULTI SPAN PROJECT Gypsophila greenhouse:

CONSTRUCTION COST    
Skelton 3” WT 2MM, ARCH 2” WT 2MM, SUPPORT BARS 25MM WT 2MM 16 MM WT 2MM (multi span) 3,998,899.00  
COVERSHEET 200 MICROON 1,050,000.00  
Open top equipment 872900.00 5921,799.00
Profile file and zigzag wire 229000.00 229000.00
MISTING 2 MICROON 275,000.00 275,000.00
     
COOLING PADS, EXHUAST FAN, CIRCULATING FAN, HUMIDITY CONTROLING SYSTEM (AUTOMATIC ) 1,967,630.00 1.967,630.00
HEATING SYSTEM (AMERICAN) 2,735,437.00 2,735,437.00
HUMIDITY AND DEHUMIDITIFDY 345,000.00 345,000.00
LIGHTING 2,743,125.00  
ELECTRIC PANEL 475,000.00  
WIRING 333,557.00 3,077,157.00
DRIP IRRIGATION 927,800.00 927,800.00
GREEN SHADE 456,700.00 456,700.00
SMART AGRICULTURE SENORS SYSTEM

If required

1,695,000.00 1,695,000.00
CIVIL WORK  PKR 45 FT X 44100 SQFT 375,500.00 375,500.00
MISC 100,000.00 100,000.00
     
SMART AGRICULTURE EQUIPMENT AS PER REQUIRMENT & DEMAND
LABOUR COST 750,000.00 750,000.00
TOTAL:   1,9330,548.00
EXCHANGE RATE 1 USD = PKR 156   US123,913 $
SERVICES CHARGES 6 % OF TOTAL COST   1,159,832.00
     

INTERNATION PRICE OF ONE ACRE AUTOMATIC GREENHOUSE IS USD 61 PER SQFT.

  • ABOVE CACULATION BASED USD 1= PKR 156, USD FLECTION MIGHT BE MINUS – PLUS IN COST
  • ALL GOVT DUTIES AND TAXES WILL ADD-UP ACCORDINGLY
  • REPLACMENT OF EQUIPMENT
  • 75 % ADVANCE, 15 % IN MIDDLE OF JOB AND 10 % ON COMPELETION OF JOB.
  • BANK CHARGES WILL BE ADDED UP IN COST.
  • TRUCKING, DUTY AND TAXES WILL BE ADDED IN COST.

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION OF DUA ENTERPRISES

Dua Enterprises

Dua Enterprises is commerce in Landscaping, Horticulture, Automatic Irrigation System,

Green House, hydroponic systems and in alternative energy with aim of enriching of environment, facilitate. Gardening dream into luxurious lawn and backyard garden, accomplish the needs of Green Pakistan and familiarize counter-strategy and induction of technology to cater to new emerging challenges of water shortage, power shortage, and food security.

 

Dua Enterprises is one of the leading Greenhouse, hydroponic, Aquaponics, Aeroponics Construction Company having the ability to use most advanced technology to construct greenhouses for all kinds of growers from all over Pakistan as per their requirement. With our well-experienced staff we design, manufacture and construct Greenhouses & hydroponic units considering the Pakistan environment and topography and known for its technological excellence in this field.

 

We specialize in greenhouse designing, assembling and manufacturing We provide a one-stop solution for greenhouse designs, structures, covering material, kits, weather-control equipment, irrigation equipment and material for greenhouse planting. Our products include Economical Plastic Tunnel, Multi-span Plastic Greenhouse, Poly-Film, polycarbonate, Greenhouse accessories, Shading Equipment, Ventilation Equipment’s, Cooling Equipment’s, Irrigation Systems, Planting Equipment’s, computer monitoring system hydroponic types of equipment like all type of NFT system, deep water system, etc.

 

Dua Enterprises is associated with world-known companies, Hortimax Green-tech Holland, Ridder Drive Systems B.V. Holland, Hydroponic Technology USA, AYS PROJE TAAHHÜT SAN. TİC. A.Ş.  Turkey’s greenhouse services China. Our principal not only assisted us with technology/ material but also participated physically in construction of projects and a joint venture in GCC countries.

We assist our clients in the construction of the greenhouse, hydroponics and drip irrigation, after-sale services, training of concern staff, facilitation in inputs, seeds, equipment’s, financial institutions /bank loans, marketing and sale of products in local market and foreign market especially Russia, GCC and China.

 

Muhammad Shoaib Akbar

Director

Dua Enterprises

17 F HBFC ICHHRA APARTMENT RASOOL PARK ICHHRA LAHORE

03341418925, 0300 4218953

Shoaibdua2009@gmail.com

www.duaenterprises.net