Present environmental condition of Pakistan.

Pakistan ranks third among countries facing water shortage

Why Hydroponic fodder is ultimate solution of the new era and it is become more important facilitation system.  We are facing water shortage and our fertile land is converted in desert. Many districts in Punjab and Sindh will become parallel semi-arid, arid, and drought-prone regions by the year 2025.

“Everything is under threat as the country is becoming a desert with a rapid pace which will destroy all the developmental initiatives, The direct impact of water crisis has reduced crops, forest productivity and water level and it has increased livestock, wildlife and human being mortality rate. Said Dr. Murtaza Mughal, President PEW”

“According to Pakistan Water Partner (PWP), the total available surface water is about 153 million MAF and the total ground water reserves are approximately 24 MAF, of which a substantial part is pumped out without allowing for a natural research. The population of Pakistan will be doubled by the year 2025 and hence the consumption of the underground water will also add to the problem further aggravated by the factors of the global warming and the climate change. Reported by THE NATION”

According to a recent report by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Pakistan ranks third in the world among countries facing acute water shortage. Reports by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR) also warn the authorities that the South Asian country will reach absolute water scarcity by 2025.

Researchers predict that Pakistan is on its way to becoming the most water-stressed country in the region by the year 2040. Water crisis and food security for human as well as for livestock demand public and private sector collective effort for conservation of water, use modern techniques for irrigation and sustainable food security for all.

LIVESTOCK in Pakistan

LIVESTOCK IS an important sector in agriculture. It represents 52.2 per cent of agricultural value added and contributes 11 per cent to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Some 30-35 million rural people depend directly or indirectly on livestock for their livelihood. It has potential to absorb more rural labour to reduce rural poverty if proper attention is given to this sector. Pakistan is proud to be the fifth largest milk producer in the world. In addition to food products, livestock sector also provides food, milk, meat, eggs, manure (used as fuel or fertilizer), feathers, fiber, hides, and horns. In today’s world, their role in food security cannot be overstated. In order to achieve sustainable development of agriculture, it is important for the Government to give more attention to livestock and dairy sector. Realizing its significance to poverty alleviation, the government has started giving some attention to this sector but no big national or international investment have been seen in dairy, beef, mutton or carpet wool production sub-sectors of livestock.

[Nutrition:

Adequate nutrition is a major problem in livestock production in Pakistan. Without providing the required nutrition for the animal the genetic potential cannot be exploited. It is yet to be decided that how much nutrients our animals need to express their full genetic potential of productivity. To develop feeding standards of buffaloes, cattle, sheep and goat, no serious effort have been made. It is difficult for extension workers to recommend accurately to livestock farmers that what standard he has to follow to feed his cow for cost-effective milk and meat production. Some advancement has been made in this regard however there is a lot need to do for revolution in animal nutrition. The availability of green fodder is not sufficient.

 

 

 

Why hydroponic fodder is ultimate solution.

The Hydroponic Fodder as an alternative to conventional method of green fodder production, hydroponics technology is coming up to grow fodder for farm animals. Green fodders produced by growing seeds without soil but in water or nutrients rich solutions are known as hydroponics green fodder. The methods of hydroponic fodder production date back to the 1800, or earlier, from the ‘Hanging Gardens of Babylon’ era, when European dairy farmers fed sprouted grains to their cows during winter to maintain milk production and improve fertility. There is renewed interest in this technology due to shortage of green fodder in most of the Middle East, African and Asian countries. Fodder production cannot easily be increased due mainly to ever increasing human pressure on land for production of cereal grains, oil seeds and pulses. To meet this increasing demand for green fodder, one of the alternatives is hydroponic fodder to supplement the meager pasture resources. Compared to conventional methods of growing fodder, hydroponic fodder requires lesser space and produces highly nutritious fodder than soil farming.

 

 

 

 

 

Different type Seed used for fodder.

Fodders including maize, barley, oats, sorghum, rye, alfalfa and triticale can be produced by hydroponics. Others, including cowpea, horse gram, sun hemp, ragi, bajra, foxtail millet and Jowar have also been grown successfully by the use of hydroponics.

The Hydroponic Fodder Growing System in simple way we can say that it consists of a framework of shelves on which trays are stacked. After soaking, a layer of seeds is spread over the base of the trays.  During the growing period, the seeds are kept moist, but not saturated. They are supplied with moisture usually via spray irrigation. Holes in the trays facilitate drainage of excess water. The seeds will usually sprout within 24 to 48 hours after soaking and in 7 days have produced a 8 to 10 inch high grass mat.

Benefits and Advantages of Hydroponics Green Fodder Production: – There are many advantages of hydroponic farming especially growing green fodder.

  • Water Saving: The hydroponic system requires only 2 to 3 liters of water to grow 1 kg of quality green fodder when compared to 55 to 75 liters of water used in conventional farming.
  • Utilization of Minimal Land:Generally, hydroponic greenhouse requires marginal land to cover the area of 10 meters x 5 meters for 1000 kg of green fodder per day per unit. In traditional farming it requires 1 hectare land.
  • Less Labour Requirement:In hydroponics, the labour required for green fodder production is about 2 to 3 hours a day whereas conventional fodder production system requires continuous intense labour for cultivation to harvesting of the grass.
  • Less Time to Grow Green Fodder:To get the optimal growth stage of nutritious green fodder, it requires just over 7 to 8 days from seed germination to fully grown plant of 20 – 30 cm height. Constant supply of green fodder is possible round the year to meet the dairy industry demand.
  • Increased Nutritious Value:The green fodder grown from hydroponic system will be highly Nutritious as compared to conventionally grown fodder. So using, hydroponic grass, one can supply quality milk from dairy animals.
  • Minimal Loss of Green Fodder:Green fodder grown from hydroponic system will be fully utilized as there won’t be any loss of the green fodder during feeding. There would be wastage of chopped traditional green fodder or green grasses during consumption by the animal.
  • Use of pesticides, insecticides and herbicides: Traditional outdoor farming must rely on herbicides, fungicides and/or insecticides for optimum production. Hydroponic fodder is grown in a controlled environment without soil and, therefore, is not susceptible to soil-borne diseases, pests or fungi, thereby minimizing use of pesticides, insecticides and herbicides. An outbreak of pests or infections in hydroponically grown fodder can be quickly controlled by spraying the crops with appropriate pesticides or fungicides. Fresh and clean water should be used for irrigation as water-

borne plant diseases spread quickly.

 

  • Fodder yield: Fodder production is accelerated by as much as 25% by bringing the nutrients directly to the plants, without developing large root systems to seek out food. Plants mature faster and more evenly under a hydroponic system than a conventional soil based system. One kg of un-sprouted seed yields 8-10 kg green forage in 7-8 days. The hydroponics maize fodder yield on fresh basis is 5-6 times higher than that obtained in a traditional farm production, and is more nutritious.
  • Hydroponic fodder ready in seven days just grain and water.
  • Fodder quality: The crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and Ca content increased, but organic matter (OM) and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) content decreased (P<0.05) in the hydroponic green forage compared with the original seed on a DM basis Hydroponic fodder is a rich source of vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, biotin, free folic acid, anti-oxidants like β-carotene and minerals found that hydroponic fodder is also a rich source of bioactive enzymes, with the highest activities in sprouts being generally between germination and 7 days of age. The fatty acid concentration showed a significant (P<0.05) positive relationship with the growth period. The concentrations of linoleic, linoleic and stearic acids increased (P<0.05) linearly with sprouting time. Besides, helping in the elimination of the anti-nutritional factors such as phytate in the grains, hydroponic fodders are good sources of chlorophyll and contain a grass juice factor that improves the performance of livestock. The crop is free from antibiotics, hormones, pesticides, or herbicides.

 

  • Characteristics of hydroponic grown fodder 

 

  • Highly rich in vitamins, minerals, enzymes.
  • Hydroponic fodder is 80% to 85% digestible
  • Hydroponic fodder contains high quality protein
  • High energy content
  • High in moisture content that prevents colic.

 

  • Impact on animal production: Because hydroponic fodders are highly succulent, their intake varied between 15 to 25, 0.25 to 2.0, 1.5 to 2.0 and 0.1 to 0.2 kg/animal/day , or 1.0 to 1.5% of body weight reported that hydroponic barley fodder (HBF) had no effect on feed intake, body weight change, milk yield, and milk composition; however, HBF had positive effects on ewe’s health, mortality, conception rate and abortion. Hydroponic fodders are highly digestible, palatable and relished by the animals. Feeding vitamin-rich hydroponic green barley fodder did not increase bioavailability of nutrients for fattening calves. There was no effect of the fodder on average daily gain (ADG), found no adverse effects on ADG and feed conversion ratio (FCR) in goat kids and rabbit kittens hydroponic horse gram or sunn hemp fodder replacing 50% of a concentrate mixture. A 90-day feeding trial on 3-month-old weaned lambs showed that feeding hydroponic barley fodder improved (P<0.05) feed intake, ADG and FCR significantly compare to those fed a ration containing barley grains. Feeding hydroponic fodder to beef cattle resulted in leaner meat containing more omega-3-fatty acids and vitamins.  Observed significant increases in the digestibility of nutrients in lactating cows fed hydroponic fodder compared to those fed Napier bajra (NB-21) green fodder. Feeding of a total mixed ration (TMR) containing either hydroponic maize fodder (HMF) or Napier bajra hybrid green fodder (NBH) for 68 days to lactating dairy cows did not have any significant effect on digestibility of nutrients, except that the digestibility of CF and NFE was higher (P<0.05) in the HMF fed group (Naik et al., 2014). The daily milk yield was 8.0-14.0% higher in animals fed TMR containing hydroponic maize or barley fodder than those fed conventional green fodder. Further reported that feeding of hydroponic maize fodder by replacing 50% maize grains in the concentrate mixture did not have any adverse effect on nutrient utilization and performance of low yielding lactating cows. Besides increased milk yield, conception rate, herd health and longevity were also improved. Furthermore, it must follow that improved animal health stemming from higher quality hydroponic fodder will reduce veterinary costs.
  • Main advantage Hydroponic fodder, one is assured of the quality and quantity of fodder that is being consumed. This consistency of feed can lead to better-tasting end products of consistent quality, which is one of the major goals of the beef producers. Similarly consistency in feed can also increase the quality of meat and other products of swine and poultry. Hydroponic fodder production is a way to substantially improve the quality of animal products.
  • Nutritional Energy: Per kg, sprouting fodder holds 12.7 megajoules (mj) of nutritional engery. The total amount of digestible matter in fodder is 91% with on average over 20% protein and 20% starch along with all the trace elements needed such as Potassium, Calcium, Copper, Cobalt, Magnesium, Sodium, Iron, Manganese, Zinc, Molybdenum, Manganese & Selenium.
  • Because birds are the only creatures whose systems are designed to process grain, monogastrics (horses, rabbits) and particularly ruminants (cattle, sheep, goats, deer), struggle to digest hard, dry feed; our system enables them to gain the benefits of fresh sprouting fodder, which is precisely what their systems have been designed to process.

 

 

Disadvantages

 

  • Hydroponic fodder heavily infested with Aspergillums clavatus should not be fed to dairy/beef cattle. Animals may develop posterior ataxia, knuckling of fetlocks, dragging of hind legs, high stepping in the hind limbs, stiff gait, tremors, progressive paresis, hypersensitivity, recumbency, clonic convulsions, decreased milk yield.

 

  • Loss in total dry matter: A number of studies reported that sprouting resulted in 7-47% loss in DM from the original seed after sprouting for a period of6-7 days of growth, mainly due to respiration during the sprouting process. Seed soaking activates enzymes that convert starch stored in endosperm to a simple sugar, which produces energy and gives off carbon dioxide and water, leading to loss of DM with a shift from starch in the seed to fiber and pectin in the roots and green shoots.

 

 

Summary

Traditional way of fodder cultivation cost Hydroponic cultivation
Land cost Structure
Agriculture machinery, equipment. Water system
Infrastructure required for pre and post harvesting Light
Handling Aeration
Transportation Seed
Water
Fuel & lubicants
Fertilizer, insecticides, pesticides and weedicides
Growing from seed 45-60 days Ready in 7 days
PKR 8/ kg PKR 3-4/kg
Less nutrient High nutrient.
25-30 cost effective in milking cost.
1000 kg daily production in 11 acre 1000 kg daily production 45×30 meter room.

of land, in addition to investment in agricultural machinery, equipment, infrastructure required for pre- and post-harvesting, including handling, transportation and conservation of fodder. It also requires labour, fuel, lubricants, fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, and weedicides. On the other hand, hydroponic fodder production requires only seed and water as production inputs with modest labour inputs. Hydroponics minimizes post-harvest losses, with no fuel required for harvesting and post harvesting processes. Moreover, in hydroponic systems it takes only 7-8 days to develop from seed to fodder while it takes 45-60.

 

Nutrient value of different seeds

 

 

Maize seed

 

Different fractions of maize plant and whole mixed fodder were analysed for their chemical composition and dry matter digestibility (DMD). Highest crude protein (CP) values were found in leaves as compared to the other portions. Younger plants contained more CP as compared to the matured ones. The crude fiber (CF) content of various fractions of the plant ranged between 19.12 to 35.60% with maximum values in the bottom portion of the stem. Matured plants contained more CF. The analysis of cell wall constituents indicated that the maximum values for neutral detergent fiber (NDF) were found in the bottom portion and in the whole mixed plant. The highest levels of acid detergent fiber (ADF) were observed in bottom fraction followed by whole mixed plant, whereas the other plant fractions did not show any differences. Variation in acid detergent lignin (ADL) values existed in different fractions of the plant and the lowest were in the top portion of the stem. Although there existed a variation in the mineral composition of different fractions of the plants, the results were non-significant. Maximum DMD was found in leaves followed by the whole mixed plant, middle and bottom portion of the stem. The values of DMD were higher in younger plants as compared to the matured ones. It may be concluded that younger plants and the upper portion of the plants have a higher nutritive value as compared to the matured plants and lower portion of the plants.

 

Barley seed

 

Barley grain was sprouted hydroponically in the light at 21°C for 1–7 days. Samples were freeze-dried, ground through a 1-mm screen and analyzed for proximate nutrients, amino acids, minerals and fatty acids. During sprouting, weights of dry matter (DM), starch (NFE) and gross energy decreased markedly (P < 0.05). A smaller reduction in protein weight also occurred. Weights of ash and fat increased slightly and fibre increased markedly with increased sprouting time. Among the amino acids, weights of cystine, glutamic acid and proline decreased, whilst aspartic acid and alanine increased. There was a slight gain in Cu, Na and Zn due to the mineral content of the water source. The fatty acid concentration showed a significant (P < 0.05) positive relationship with growth period.

These results indicate that the younger the sprout, the greater its nutrient weight. Thus, it would appear that Day 1 sprouts are nutritionally superior to Day 4 sprouts which are currently being fed to livestock. It would also appear that field-sprouted grain, which is analogous to Day 1 sprouts in terms of gross physical appearance, would have a minimal loss of nutrients.

Soya Bean

Soya bean seeds were sprouted hydroponically in the light at 21°C for 1–7 days. Samples were freeze-dried, ground through a 1-mm screen and analyzed for proximate nutrients, amino acids, minerals and trypsin-inhibitor content. During sprouting, quantities of energy, dry matter (DM), total lipids (TL) and starch (NFE) decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Protein weight did not change during sprouting. Weight of ash increased slightly and weight of fibre increased markedly during sprouting. Among the amino acids, weight of glutamic acid decreased whilst weights of aspartic acid and leucine increased. There was a slight gain in weights of Cu, Na and Zn, these being related to the mineral content of the water source. Weight of trypsin inhibitor (TI) decreased cubically with increased sprouting time.

Although nutrients are lost to a lesser degree during the sprouting of soya beans as compared with barley, the substantial reduction in TL may mean that the energy value is more adversely affected. It is not known whether the decrease in TI is great enough to render the sprouts safe for direct consumption by farm animals.

 

 

Technology Features

Fodder Alternative – A highly nutritious and digestible fodder is provided daily on your property to be used in conjunction with other feed or as an alternative to them. The cost per kilogram is very competitive – depending largely upon the current prices of the seed grain.

  • Drought Proofing– The conversion of seed grain into succulent fodder by a factor of six to one has much appeal during drought or normal dry summer periods.
  • Management Tool– To have such a fodder available 365 days of the year allows farm managers to drop lambs, calves, etc at an optimal time to meet market peaks, as well as having the comfort of being able to produce fat stock that has a consistent quality.
  • Productivity in a Shed– Owners of small properties now have the means to economically increase their stock numbers without having to lot feed or the need to purchase additional loan.

 

Daily operation of the fodder growing revolves around 5 main tasks:

  1. Harvesting mature fodder is pulled out of the trays as a complete single mat. Feeding them to animals.
    2. Cleaning Trays It is critical that the trays and all equipment are thoroughly cleaned to reduce the risk of mould and other infections. A soapy water or water with bleach is commonly used to achieve this.
    3. Sowing New grain, which has been soaked for 24 hours, is sown into the trays. This grain is sown in an even layer 2cm deep.
    4. Cleaning & washing the grains for soaking
    5. Disinfecting and soaking grains for next day sowing

Day 0 – 1 of cycle – Pre-soaked swollen grains evenly spreading in the plastic tray, trays stacked on shelves
Day 2 of cycle – Seeds have begun to sprout roots and head after being soaked for 24 hours before planting.
Day 4 of Cycle – Tremendous growth in root bed occurs before growth of shoots/ heads.  Healthy root beds will create a mass that resembles that of a tight knit carpet lifting the seed and shoot from the tray.
Day 6 of Cycle – Root bed is almost fully developed and growth transfers to shoots that have grown to 1″-2″ in overall height.
Day 7 of Cycle – Feeding Day – Growth so fast you can nearly see it!

Fully developed shoots and root bed ready for feeding.  Healthy root beds are hard to separate and shoots are 8″-10″ in overall height.  From simple seed and water comes healthy natural feed with no fertilizer and hormones added.

After the mat is removed from the tray, it can go into a feed mixer or be hand-fed to livestock. Livestock will eat the whole thing: seeds, roots, and grass. There is minimal waste. Livestock may not eat the fodder initially because it is novel, but should soon learn to eat it with relish.

 

 

 

Benefits to Dairy Cattles

  • When fed 15kg per day of fresh hydroponic fodder, the average difference between the test and control groups was +11% milk yield, and +23% milk quality.
  • Extended trials over 29 years by Ohio State University indicate that dairy cows fed with freshly mown grass outperformed cattle fed grass that was allowed to dry with an increased milk yield of 28%. Hydroponic fodder is the equivalent of freshly mown grass every day of the year. The fodder is digested more easily in the rumen, being over 80D, enabling the digestive system to conserve energy during digestion, and using the “saved” energy to both maintain condition and fertility, and improve milk yield & Milk Quality with fat.

Benefits to Beef animals

  • Trials conducted in NZ demonstrated improved weight gain in fodder-fed cattle: • Cattle in fed 15kg of fodder per day, over 84 days, had a total live weight gain over the testing period of 41% more than group 2 (normal feed) .
  • In addition the cost of feeding the treated group was SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER than the control group due to the lower cost of fodder production.
  • The cost would be even lower when compared to feeding conserved forages such as silage.

 

Benefits to goats  

Goats have a well-developed digestive system; Fodder closely replicates what goats would naturally forage for in the wild.  An improvement in feed efficiency will lead to higher quality production of milk, meat and fiber.

Consuming fresh fodder will provide several advantages to goats, including:

  • Faster weight gain and better quality meat
  • High-grade fiber
  • Improved milk production and quality
  • Improved hoof health
  • Improved fertility

Fodder Benefits As Poultry Feed

Poultry feed is some of the most expensive livestock feed on the market, making hydroponically grown fodder an easy choice for poultry producers. Sprouted fodder is considered a complete ration for poultry and contains all of the essential nutrients, vitamins and minerals needed for optimal meat and egg production.

Incorporating fodder into poultry diets will result in these benefits:

  • Better quality eggs with deeper yolk color
  • Enhanced egg taste
  • Reduced sticky droppings
  • Higher quality meat with better texture
  • Improved health and energy levels

 

Benefits to Rabbits

  • Faster weight gain
  • Higher fertility
  • Ween from mothers faster
  • Reduced scours when weening

 

Costing

 

Introduction of Dua Enterprises

We are Pioneer in Hydroponic Growing System Since 2012. Dua Enterprises is technology driven ISO 9000 company that specializes in the development, manufacturing and marketing of hydroponic fodder systems. This system grows SEED TO FEED in 7 DAYS. We offer the right size system to meet your needs at the right price. You shouldn’t have to pay for a system that produces more feed than you need.

 

DUA ENTERPRISES

17 F HBFC ICHRA APPARTMENT RASOOL PARK ICHRA LAHORE PAKISTAN

PH: 923341418924,923004218953, 9245237501212

Shoaibdua2009@gmail.com

www.duaenterprises.net