INTRODUCTION

Climate change, land eradication, draught and gradually increasing water shortage problems have emerged as a multi reasoning sever AGRICULTURE / FRUITS growing problem in Pakistan in recent years. Despite the agrarian country present fruiting is unable to fulfill domestic demand of people and forced to import all fruits items against Dollars. All major fruit products are encountered with rejection in international market, thus this is high to change the course and needs to transform in the modern arrangement, technology, and compassion of visionary entrepreneurship. Dua Enterprises has familiarized the modern greenhouse fruit production system. Greenhouse, Hydroponics, Aeroponics, Aquaponics and Drip irrigation systems are able to cater present production glitches and able to the tournament with future challenges with goalmouths to fulfill local market demand local industrial, processing and export of fruits.

The proposed Fruiting business the plan is the pedestal on Build – Operate and Transfer(BOT) standings, the initial investment on the development of 1 hectare will reinvest in the development of others 9 hectares (25 acres) in 10 years, with the assistance of infrastructure building,  management in production and sale support in the local and international market. Besides that facilities, the owner will get a 12 % profit share during the execution of the plan plus emerging profit share after 3 years on GP on regular basis. After the development of 25 acres, technology will transfer to the owner of land in 10 years. Similarly, if the landowner is required further consultation from Dua Enterprises can be signed on mutually agreed terms and conditions.

  • to develop Greenhouse Fruit orchard for all-season production, sustainable growth, and consistent profit on build-operate and transfer bases.
  • Personal the initial investment or bank loan (on banking term and condition) with payback plan.
  • Profit share (12 %) after 3 year and plus emerging profit share after 6 years during execution period.
  • Climate control greenhouse production on the mutually agreed medium of growth, on Soil, Hydroponically, growth in moveable POTS or applying the automatic Drip irrigation system in zone 10.
  • Projected start-up costs:The first investment is PKR 29,923,546, cost split into a variable, 3 years production, and fixed cost. Climate control first greenhouse and fix a one-time cost.
  • Profit in years on first investment is PKR 75,921,927 after 10 years.
  • 12 % profit after 3 years on revenue
  • + 12 % profit share on revenue after 6 years of plan.
  • 25 acres greenhouse orchard

KEY OF BUSINESS PLAN: – Not only Agriculture but agriculture as a business.

Further few paragraphs are going to narrate agriculture business plan based on Build-operate and transfer basis with a clear objective that Agriculture/Fruit production is not in certain “CONDITION” under calamite threats and input & output uncertainty and rejection fear, but Fruiting for business, sustainable growth and profitability. Small landowner to large landholder can be secured their Fruiting production and profit and become a model for new Agriculture Entrepreneurs for a better future.

 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Climate Change and the introduction of new technology in agriculture have changed old traditional cultivation. The modern cultivation system is providing sustainable growth and consistent profitability. Climate control Greenhouse The fruiting production system is recognized as the most modern growing technology in the world today. This technology is to enable bulk production in all seasons. This is most economical, water-saving, pest less, and unrestricted from weather threats. A fruit tree can be grown in soil, moveable Pots, and hydroponically. This production system contributes a 15-25 % increase in fruiting and 35-40 % water saving as compare to the present irrigation system. 

The proposed project is based on the Construction of infrastructure, Management in production, and Sale support on a BOT (build-operate-transfer) basis of a medium-large scale of 25 acres. Land transform into modern production orchard.  This climate-controlled orchard will construct on 25 Acres with one first initial investment and transfer within 10 years to the landowner. The first initial investment will cover construction 1-hectare climate control greenhouse, plantation and operational cost, the generated revenue will reinvest in the development of others (9 hectares) 22.5 acres in 10 years and investors will get a 12 % profit share within 3 years on revenue and after 6 years will get regular agreed profit.  In the proposed Climate control orchard project will ensure the growth of all fruit trees grows in zone 10. 

Dua Enterprises will assist in the construction of infrastructure, provide management in production, and contribute to sales support in the local market and export to GCC and Central Asia other countries. Complete devotion to the best agronomic practices is critical to the success of this project. Therefore, technical knowledge training of concern staff and experience of the entrepreneur/support people is also a key connection of success, sustainable growth, and consistent profitability. 

The present economic condition and projection of economic growth up to 2.4 % of GDP in manufacturing large scale and small scales industries, dollar fluctuation impacts, and duty and taxation the ratio on imports, registration efforts on trading and services sector are becoming a barrier in business development. The Agricultural/ fruiting is the only marginal taxation FREE area of business at present. Government support programs in agriculture area, the low-interest rate on loaning facilities, present demand and supply gap and present import volume of 4 $ billion are encouraging factors, these supportive pointers are providing a chance for progressive farmers and business institutions to invest in the agriculture sector and fulfill the demand and supply gap and export their agriculture product to GCC, Russia, central Asia countries and tailor the opportunity around CPEC. China. In that favorable prospective agriculture/fruiting will be played a locomotive role in business as a profitable venture. 

  • Smart Agriculturewithout exiting potential climate change threats and challenges of food security.
  • Mission: Not only Agriculture, But Agriculture for business and profitability.
  • Solution: Climate control orchard with world best techniques and technology.
  • Market focus: Local and international market needs and direct for industrial, processing industry and pharmaceutical needs
  • Competitive advantage: 4 season cropping, early harvesting and early access to the market.
  • Ownership: Landowner / investors/ bank (if bank loan is there)/consultant firm.
  • Expected returns: Ever year 12 % profit share and after 3 years emerging revenue share.

 INTRODUCTION

Dua Enterprises

Dua Enterprises is commerce in 2014. Technology base initiative and application in Pakistan according to the need of client demand, Climate situation, and Crop media requirements.

  • Company summary: Dua Enterprises are expert in the construction of Greenhouse, Hydroponics, Aeroponics, Aquaponics, Vertical farming, and Drip irrigation systems. Dua Enterprises constructs system as per client demand, weather condition, and crop requirement. From turning of the urban small rooftop, vacant rooms, underground halls into the vertical growing system to hi-tech multi-purpose commercial growing units with most modern growing mediums for all types of vegetables and organic cropping, Climate control Orchards, Flower and cut flower cultivation in the greenhouse and automatic growing system. Commercial Herbs production system, surface, and subsurface drip irrigation system. RDI Drip irrigation informant to save water and energy.
  • Mission statement: Dua Enterprises is facilitating growers and new agriculture entrepreneur’s climate change threat and recent effects free growing environment and technology for sustainable agriculture, constant profit, food security, and ecological sanctuary. NOT ONLY AGRICULTURE BUT AGRICULTURE BUSINESS.

Company history: Company higher management is qualified and having working experience in EU, GCC countries, Our engineering, technicians, associate agriculturist and trade partners are  experienced staff are facilitate in construction of systems, production management, training of client immediate staff but also support in sale of products in Local market and in international market. Company has working experience with leading public and private institution in Pakistan. Dua Enterprises is engaged with CEPC authorities to establish growing units in Baluchistan. Dua enterprises handled USAID and other donor agencies funded agriculture project in KPK, Baluchistan. Numbers of projects has completed in public and private institutions. Dua Enterprises is associated with known international supplier in Holland, Italy, USA and China. Associates not only provide technology but also provide technical and back end services. Dua Enterprises has introduced IOT Technology to promote Smart Agriculture in Pakistan.  Similarly, Dua Enterprises has introduced Drone technology for monitoring and pesticide spray.

  • Markets and services: Dua Enterprises associate with Local Traders, exporters and registered as a vendor company with well-known supermarkets, hotels, and elite cafes in Pakistan.  Along with infrastructure building, production management, and companies assist growers in the sale of their products. Dua Enterprises are in process of registration of hydroponics SEEDS & Fertilizer from Italy and France.
  • Company Registered with all concern government department, registered with Sindh, Punjab and KPK Irrigation departments and illegible to import of agriculture equipment across the globe.
  • Financial goals: Company is registered with all Government Financial institutions and fulfill all government obligations on regular basis.

BUSINESS DESCRIPTION

FRUITS PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN

According to Agricultural Statistics, the area under cultivation of fruits in Pakistan is about 875,000 hectares. Out of which we are getting 7,200,000 tons of fresh fruits annually. Our average production is about 8.23 tons per hectare and has a 12 % share in Agriculture GDP,  but according to one study  fruits  production in Pakistan is very low,  which is very low as compared to advanced countries i.e. 20-25 Tons per hectare and only exporting 10- 20 % of its total production.

Agriculture is the second-largest sector, accounting for over 21 percent of GDP, and remains by far the largest employer, absorbing 45 percent of the country’s total labor force. Nearly 62 percent of the country’s population resides in rural areas, and is directly or indirectly linked with agriculture for their livelihood. Fruits growing in Pakistan are Orange, MangoApple, Apricot, Banana, Cherry, Dates, Guava, Peach, Lemon, Litchi, Papaya, Olive, mulberry, Plums, Pear, Pomegranate, Strawberry, Sweet lime, Apricot, and a lot of dry fruits are including Almonds, Pistachios, and Walnuts, etc. Regardless of the 4 seasons and cheaper labor fruits, production is facing a lot of problems and anguish in the low productive and low standard. According to Dr. Mubarak, DG of PARC food contamination is a major issue that had not only endangered public health but also badly affected the country’s exports. 122 exportable food products were rejected in 2002 on account of food contamination. Rejection is not new phenomena every year number of food product are being every year. All major country and buyer has rejected our products due to mycotoxins, unauthorized additives, microbiological contaminants, organoleptic properties, heavy metals; pesticide residues and allergens and industrial chemicals. We can only address local and international concerns over food products only by adopting good manufacturing practices, quality assurance systems, and a food control system for import and exports with an efficient regulatory structure to ensure consumer protection. 

Post-production losses

According to the statistics compiled by the Ministry of Food and Agriculture, because of lack of post-production care, the loss of fruit and vegetable yield suffered by grower’s amounts to almost one-third of the total yield. During 1994-95 alone, the loss of fruit and vegetable production amounted to Rs16, 765 million while the total value was Rs.47, 892 million. 

Climate change is another emerging issue is in Pakistan,

The effects of climate change and global warming on Pakistan are in the mean ways like the melting of glaciers in the Himalayas, threatening the volumetric flow rate of rivers of Pakistan increasing sea level 10 cm. the effects are projected on millions of lives, unprecedented temperature 52-to- 57oC, tropical storms, economic sustainability, food security 21 million -30 million populations up to 2030. 

 Mangoes harvest might reel from unfavorable weather conditions this summer, fearing a significant 20 to 25 percent drop in the production of the aromatic and juicy fruit. They feared a shortfall of 300,000 to 400,000 tons in mango output this year compared to the last year. One researcher Mr. Khan estimated that the drop of temperature adversely impacted the pollination process. Low night temperature causes shedding of fruit, which is a loss for the farmers. Besides, hailstorm badly hit mango trees. 

 

Climate change has triggered pest’s infestation, disease incidence and water use and ultimately increased inputs cost in Citrus orchards in Punjab which is the main Citrus producing area. Heat and drought stress and the fog was more observed in Vehari and Toba Tek Singh (TTS) and more yield reduction and low quality were recorded in these districts than Sargodha. Processing cost increased and more export risk was seen with market fluctuation in the climate change scenario. Increased input cost, the water requirement of plants, reduction in net return, and uncertain market were observed. Climate change has directly affected the citrus industry. 

Similarly, Fruit farms have also been severely affected with irreversible damage in large tracts of land, particularly in northern parts of Baluchistan. Farmers face financial ruin as large numbers of trees have virtually dried up and/or been rendered unproductive due to severe water shortages. With groundwater levels already very low and receding at an alarming rate, the recovery and continuation of fruit farms may have been compromised in these areas. Fruit production includes citrus, apples, apricots, almonds, and mangoes among others. Total production for the last five years averaged 6.2 million tonnes annually, including 2 million tonnes of citrus, 900 000 tonnes of mangoes and about 532 000 tonnes of apples. While the figures for 2000/01 are not yet available, it is estimated that apple production was reduced by at least 50 percent due to drought. Fruit farmers, particularly in parts of northern Baluchistan are facing financial ruin as large numbers of trees have dried up and are being cut as firewood. With groundwater levels already very low and receding at an alarming rate, the recovery, and continuation of fruit farms may have been compromised in these areas. 

The characteristics of products and traditional way of cultivation, low yield and low yield aftermath problems, infrastructure imperfections emerge in a low standard of product. 
A) Post-production losses:

  1. B) Perishability:
  2. C) Seasonality
  3. D) Quality: Quality is a combination of agronomic practices, variety characteristics, grading, processing, and finally packaging
  4. E) Small-scale production
  5. F) Supply chain:
  6. G) Lack of infrastructure:
  7. H) Low yields: Low yield is resulting from a combination of price insecurity
  8. I) Absence of cold chain and limited cold storage
  9. J) Standardization: There are no laid down procedures for standardization and quality specifications. In absence of brand names, the importer is not sure of the quality he will be getting that prevents the better quality to fetch a higher price in the international market. 

Above all issues are not helping to increase Export earning, the market value of the total fruits produced in Pakistan is estimated at about 69.2 billion rupees, which is roughly about 8 percent of agricultural value added in the year. Pakistan earned 5.4 billion rupees from fruit exports during 2005-06, representing nearly 11 percent of the total amount earned from the export of all raw agricultural commodities. During the year 2005-06, Pakistan exported 262 thousand metric tons of fruit valued at PKR 5.394 billion. The citrus, mangoes, dates, and grapes accounted for 30, 23, 22, and 1 percent respectively in terms of foreign exchange earnings. The export data of fruit and overtime changes and growth rates for the period 1995-2006 are presented in although the growth in fruit export increased by 6 percent by volume and 14 percent by value over the period between 1994-95 and 2005-06 and increased significantly.

Fruit Export Increases 4.21% in FY 2018-19. During FY 2018-19Pakistan exported 768,202 metric tons of fruit, worth a total of $416 million. This marks an increase of 4.21% compared with last year’s exports, which amounted to 696,648 metric tons, valued at $399.515 million, and import of essential food was USD 6.184 billion to 5.668 billion during the period from July-June 2018-19.

Pakistan is the sixth-largest producer of Kinow (mandarin) and oranges in the world, with 2.1 million tons. Pakistan’s world mandarin and oranges market share during the year 1997 was 0.9 percent and 3.6 percent in terms of value and volume respectively. Fresh dates earned $3.330 million in 99-2000. Whereas, the export of dry dates dependent on the Indian market, as 92.6 percent exports of total exports of dry dates go to India. Pine nuts earned $17.268 million in 99-2000 alone, which is 21.6 percent of total fruit exports,  the Mango export has attained target after five years and achieved a record export volume of 115,000 metric tons during this season supported by the high standards and aggressive marketing. Exporters said that Pakistani mango managed to get a better price in the international market and earned some $80 million for the national exchequer during this season Pakistan is all set to start mango exports from May 20, 2019, eyeing a target of 100,000 metric tons this year.

Despite the above fact from 2005 to 2019 export earnings and volume are increased but Pakistan has only 0.37% of world fruit exports and needs potential efforts and enhances production capacity for increasing export volume opportunity: Fruits are highly digestible and constitute a significant portion of the diet. Data showed that the per capita consumption of fruits has increased from 28 kg/annum to 35 kg/annum during the period 1970-2000 in Pakistan (FAO, 1999-2001) and vary year to year in 1992 fruits consumption was estimated 86 value, in 97 value increased by 102 or 18.60%, 2002 consumption drop up to 86 or -15.69% little increase in 2007 98 or 13.95 %. This is far low as per FAQ status. According to a Gilani Research Foundation Survey carried out by Gallup & Gilani Pakistan, only 26% of Pakistanis consume fruit every day. A nationally representative sample of men and women from across the four provinces was asked, “Please tell us how regularly you consume fruit?” In response, 26% said every day, 42% said once a week, 22% said once a month, 9% said sometimes and 1% said never. Urban-Rural Breakdown: Of urban dwellers, 36% said every day, 41% said once a week, 13% said once a month, 9% said sometimes and 1% said never. Of rural dwellers, 21% said every day, 43% said once a week, 27% said once a month, 8% said sometimes and 1% said never. Due to the high price, lack availability, low production, and wastage of fruits in post-production and market anxiety. A better production system can increase the level of per capita consumption and profitability in the local market. Between July-Feb FY19, Pakistan’s exports of fruits and vegetables stood in excess of 1.165m tons. In July-Feb FY18 it was 1.016m tons. In eight months of this fiscal year i.e. between July 2018 and Feb 2109, forex, earnings of fruits and vegetables totaled $479 million. In the same period last year, it was $387m. While this gain of $92m or about 24 percent looks impressive, this was only achieved after exporting much larger quantities of fruits and vegetables, squeezing supplies in local markets. Between July-Feb FY19, Pakistan’s exports of fruits and vegetables stood in excess of 1.165m tons. In July-Feb FY18 it was 1.016m tons. In other words, supplies to local markets shrank by no less than 149,000 tons. Its effect can be seen in higher prices of almost all fruits and a number of vegetables, minus potato. There was also a potato glut this year.

Pakistan is a small player in thebe around 2.0 billion liters. During the past decade, the market has grown consistently at an average annual rate of around 15%. About two-thirds of the total market is accounted for by fruit drinks. Gap between local consumption and local production indicate the potential of the Processing industry and production of fruits international trade of fruit juices. In 2016, the country exported 4,663 tons of juice with a value of USD 5.7 million. Pakistan’s fruit juices exports include only two product categories. 70% exports fell under the category of ‘mixture of juices’ and 30% under the ‘other juices’ category. UK, Canada, Afghanistan, and the USA are the key importers of fruit juices from Pakistan and import ready-to-drink juice 4,647 tons with a value of USD 4.8 million. Local fruit juice market which has grown exponentially over the years to develop a diverse portfolio of ready-to-drink fruit juices, nectars, and still drinks (JNSD). The size of the JNSD market in 2018 is estimated to pure fruit juices, nectars, and drinks are prepared from pulps, purees, and concentrates which are obtained by processing fresh fruits. Most of the fruit and vegetable production is consumed in fresh form.

There are a small fruit and vegetable processing industry, which is concentrated around the major cities. There are 25 small and medium industrial units, having an estimated capacity of 45,000 a metric ton, engaged in the production of squashes, jams and jellies, pickles, and a small number of canned fruits and vegetables the production of Ø canned fruits is estimated at 15,000 metric tons. Ø Jams, jellies, and marmalades usage is at 2,000 metric tons. Pickles and sauces usage is at 10,000 metric tons. Syrup and squashes at 18,000 million bottles.

 

Most of the producers of these products are based in urban areas. Approximately 30 fruit juice pulp processing plants with an installed capacity of 500,000 metric tons per annum are engaged in the production of fruit juices and fruit drinks.

 

Pine nuts earned $17.268 million in 99-2000 alone, which is 21.6 percent of total fruit exports. I believe a lot of potential available in this sub-sector and exporters will concentrate and will explore new markets to earn a good price. At present Germany is the main buyer from Pakistan (22.6 percent) followed by France (21.6 percent and the Middle East (16.5 percent). Pakistan earned $19.866 million by the export of onion in the year 1999-00 mainly to the Middle East 44.8 percent (57,760 thousand kg), followed by Sri Lanka 34.5 percent, Singapore 6.35 percent, Bangladesh 5.4 percent and the remaining 9 percent to other countries. Though quantity-wise exports increased by 89 percent as compared to last year 98-99, there is a sharp decline of 20.4 percent value-wise due to competition.
DATE Large share of fresh dates are being exported to the USA (31.16 percent) followed by India (24.76%), Canada (13.3 percent), UK (6.9 percent), Denmark (5.6 percent), Germany (4.7%), and remaining to other parts of the world. Fresh date’s exports are not relying on one market. Fresh dates earned $3.330 million in 99-2000. Whereas, the export of dry dates dependent on the Indian market, as 92.6 percent exports of total exports of dry dates go to India. The numbers, reported by the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, show a couple of things. Firstly, exports of fruits and vegetables are far lower than the country’s potential. Secondly, the average per ton export price is low. And thirdly, since this is in continuation of a trend, more needs to be invested in revamping and modernizing our horticulture sector. In the entire last fiscal year, combined export earnings of fruits and vegetables rose to around $641.7m from $565.8m a year ago, or just around 12%. Meanwhile, export volumes grew to 15.85m tons from 12.78m tons or 24%. To increase the production we need either to increase the area under fruit cultivation or to go for modern orchard establishment i.e. high-density plantings and best management practices. A demographic change towards urbanization reduces the size of the rural workforce, agriculture will also need to adopt new forms of mechanization and shift to land use intensification, with all of its connotations. High agricultural production assures food security and agriculture surpluses for export at competitive prices require efficient development and utilization of agricultural resources. Cost-effectiveness in the production of various crops brings built‐in competitive edge to low productivity attributed to farmers. Farm operations being time specific, demand precision to optimize the efficiencies of Economic Survey 2009‐10 24 agricultural inputs for higher productivity. The future changes in free market economy and faster globalization have further necessitated the modernization of agricultural machinery through the transfer of the latest, efficient, and cost effective technologies to the farming community. Efficient use of scarce agriculture resources and accelerated agricultural mechanization are, therefore, vital to meet the challenges of a future scenario that need a comprehensive strategy, need to change the traditional growing pattern to modern growing classification like Greenhouse production, using sensors system to anticipate issues of plant, soil, and environment impacts and to achieve local and international buyer standards and regulations. 

 

CLIMATE CONTROL GREENHOUSE

Greenhouses are frames of the inflated structure covered with a transparent material in which crops are grown under controlled environment conditions. … The primary environmental parameter traditionally controlled is temperature, usually providing heat to overcome extreme cold conditions. Greenhouse Technology is the technique of providing favorable environmental conditions to the plants. It is rather used to protect the plants from adverse climatic conditions such as wind, cold, precipitation, excessive radiation, extreme temperature, insects, and diseases.

 The origin of life on earth explains the basic concept of the greenhouse. Before the origin of any living organism on the earth, the temperature of the earth was around -18°C due to the absence of an atmosphere between earth and sun. Various gases namely nitrogen (N), carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), oxygen (O2), nitrous oxide (N2O), etc. available inside earth came out through spaces between plates of earth and formed a porous layer around the earth, known as atmosphere. The newly formed atmosphere around the earth had a unique property that it absorbed ultraviolet and far-infrared radiation coming from the sun and allowed only short-wavelength (0.3-3 μm) radiation emitted by the sun to reach the earth surface. Further, the atmosphere did not allow long-wavelength (> 3.0 μm) radiation emitted by the earth. Hence, the trapped thermal energy raised the temperature of the earth and air between earth and atmosphere. The rise of the temperature of the air is known as the greenhouse effect. According to Encyclopedia 2000, the greenhouse effect for the environment is defined as:

Greenhouse Effect – the term for the role the atmosphere plays in insulating and warming the earth’s surface. The atmosphere is largely transparent to incoming solar radiation. When this radiation strikes the earth’s surface, some of it is absorbed, thereby warming the earth’s surface. The surface of the earth emits some of this energy back out in the form of infrared radiation. As this infrared radiation travels through the atmosphere, much of it is absorbed by atmospheric gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and water vapor. These gases then re-emit infrared radiation, some of which strikes and is absorbed by the earth. The absorption of infrared energy by the atmosphere and the earth called the greenhouse effect, maintains a temperature range on earth that is hospitable to life.

 

 

Advantages of Green House

A greenhouse is a closed space for the cultivation of fruits and vegetables, consists of a structure that support a translucent outer shell, glass, polycarbonate sheet or plastic sheet 100 to 200 micron. It is a protected place where you can control environmental factors for optimal plant growth. 

 

1- Good distribution of light inside the greenhouse. The greenhouse covers can change the direction of the sun’s rays, thus evenly distributed over the entire surface, benefiting the entire greenhouse and avoiding the sun’s rays directly to the plant.

 

2- Energy efficiency. Takes advantage of the environmental conditions, such as optimizing the heat inside the greenhouse.

 

3- Control of microclimate. One of the main advantages of a greenhouse is to control and establish the optimal environment for cultivation. You can adjust the temperature, humidity, lighting, etc.

 

4- Protection against diseases, pests and other vermin. Another advantage of a greenhouse is that it is very difficult to enter as it is a closed space.

 

5- Excellent ventilation. You can ventilate the greenhouse quickly, thanks to their zenithal or side windows.

 

6- Optimum sealing against rain and air. 

 

7- Increased production. This is a great advantage of a greenhouse, can intensify production due to weather conditions, can accelerate the growth of the plants and also allows a greater amount of crop on the surface. According to analyses 10-12 % higher growth rate is through the greenhouse.

 

8- Production off-season. Thanks to the environmental control of the greenhouse can produce off-season; therefore we will have a better sale price and a continuous supply of the product.

 

9- Production in regions with adverse weather conditions.

 

10- Ability to grow all year. You can get more than one crop cycle per year and different species of plants.

 

11- Optimizes the use of other technologies to facilitate the management of climate (heating, humidification, shade screens or saving energy, etc.)

 

According to one survey, 30 % of crop losses are reported during harvesting and unfavorable weather condition. In Baluchistan, KPK and northern area fruits orchards are facing heavy losses due to weather and unavailability of water. Cultivation in Greenhouse is world know and recommended phenomena and farmers are getting more production and saved water, fertilizer and pesticide expenditure. Greenhouse Production cost is remaining miner as compared to production and sale. No doubt, mechanization of agriculture is increasing in Pakistan, but in most of the areas, the old implements are still being used for agricultural production. Old and orthodox techniques of production cannot increase the production according to international levels.

 

 

 

 

HOW TO MANAGE FRUIT GREENHOUSE & NEEDS

In a greenhouse, fruiting trees, shrubs, and vines can be grown in the ground or in containers. Growing fruit trees in a greenhouse rewards framer with fresh fruit, no matter how frightful the weather gets outside. Greenhouse fruits growing phenomena is in introduced 19th century in England for oranges growth. Growers can grow several kinds of fruit trees in the greenhouse, including pears, peaches, bananas, oranges, and tropical fruits that appreciate year-round warmth. Climate control greenhouse granting protects from the blossom and fruiting from spring frosts, pests and extreme weather, birds as the fruit matures easier. Greenhouse is ultimately helping producer to produce superior fruits.

 

 

  • Fruit trees may also be grown in the unheated greenhouse in, soil, pots, tubs, or boxes. The restriction of the roots induces early fruiting and keeps the trees small. Containerized stone fruitsmay be kept year-round in the greenhouse, or moved into it for a little as a few weeks to protect blossoms from killing frigidities in spring or to extend the growing season for late-ripening varieties. But some heat is necessary. The blossom and newly-set fruitlets of all hardy fruits are susceptible to frost. In an unheated greenhouse sun-heat is stored up during the daytime so that the average temperature is well above that prevailing outside. Further, the occupants of such a greenhouse are not exposed to chilling, growth-inhibiting winds, and these two factors result in earlier blossoming this, of course, increases the risk of frost coinciding with flowering. Just sufficient heating, therefore, must be available to keep the temperature above 32°F (0°C) during the coldest weather. Growing fruit trees in the greenhouse, farmers will need to provide a warm environment plants to thrive. Most fruit trees appreciate temperatures above 50 degrees Fahrenheit (10 0C), including bananas and citrus trees, while tropical fruit trees need temperatures above 60 F (15 0C). For example Citrus trees prefer a humid environment, with light, frequent watering and regular misting. Fruit trees do best in warm weather and mild winters, growing them in greenhouse ensures that tree will received adequate temperature and environment without the problems the tree are facing in outdoor.

 

  • Although plenty of water will be required in the growing season, water management and fertilizing through automatic controlling system and drainage system of extra water system is must be impeccable. Greenhouse-grown plants (and any plants, for that matter) cannot survive without some form of irrigation. While there are different types of greenhouse irrigation systems are available – including sprinkler and subsurface systems – we use a drip irrigation system because of itsefficiency and accuracy. Drip irrigation is exactly what it sounds like – irrigation administered to a crop through dripper technology. Every plant gets its own dripper tube, which is typically placed in the back corner of the substrate block in which our plants sit. Drip irrigation is an efficient way to irrigate greenhouse crops – the placement of our dripper tubes makes it easy for our Growers to deliver revise volumes of nutrient water directly to the root systems of our plants.

The Design of Drip irrigation system according to water needs of plant in all seasons. Drip irrigation process uses a pressure compensated drip tube system that releases a specified volume of water once x amount of water pressure is applied to the dripper’s release valve. This allows for water and nutrients to be evenly distributed across our entire crop. Irrigation system is linked with temperatures fluctuate at different times of the year, efficient operation link with light levels – the more sunlight shining on  plants, the more they generally need to be irrigated for the effective  the process of photosynthesis – light is what activates a plant’s energy creation process,

 

So more light means a plant will start working harder to grow leaves and fruit (which means more elements like water and CO2 are needed if a plant is going to successfully create glucose to feed itself).

 

  • Automatic ventilation controls the indoor air flow. It gives greenhouse plants with a consistent supply of carbon dioxide. They require this for sugar and oxygen production. The concentrated carbon dioxide will result in bigger leaves and vigorous plant stems. It also increases its potential for early flowering and fruiting.
  • Greenhouses with moisture regulators keep the air humid for peak plant development. With a humid atmosphere, every plant can focus on flowering and fruiting. Plus a moist soil will be less likely to entertain pests and diseases. In really hot weather there is another trick to keep plants cool: damping down. Damping down is the process of raising the humidity inside the greenhouseby wetting hard surfaces such as paths and staging. As the water evaporates, it increases the moisture level of the air, which helps plants to cope with the heat. One of the best methods growers use is a fogging system to regulate humidity and create an ideal setting for plants to grow. Fogging is essentially a visible cloud of water droplets suspended in the air, both cooling and moisturizing the grow environment.
  • Co2 system, CO2concentration in ambient air ranges from 300-500 parts per million (ppm), with a global atmospheric average of about 400 ppm. If you are growing in a greenhouse or indoors, the CO2 levels will be reduced as the plants use it up during photosynthesis. Efficient CO2 generator and controlling system are essential part of greenhouse.
  • Cooling system Fan and Pad Evaporative Cooling Systems. Evaporative cooling, which uses the heat in the air to evaporate water from plants and other wetted surfaces can be used to cool the greenhouseas much as 10 to 20ºF below the outside temperature. … Changing water from the liquid to the vapor phase absorbs considerable heat.

PRODUCTION OVERVIEW IN GREENHOUSE

 

Product overview: The Fig is being grown as a tree (260-435 plants per acre); however, results of early trials at the National Agriculture Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad have shown that it can be grown as a low height plant in high-density plantation as high as strawberry or cotton; in rows (row to row 2 ft. and plant to plant 1 ft.; 21780 plants per acre)  Every year after leaf fall (December-January) before spring sprouting if the plantation is severely pruned like Falsa (Grewia asiatica L.) leaving 3-6 inch of stem from ground level; one can get 60,000 to 70,000 cuttings (of pruned wood) from an acre for nursery planting. Fruiting commences in less than a year. Over 5 tons of fresh fruit per acre can be harvested as spring crops from the pruned plants every year.

 

Production, Import, and Export

The total area under Figs in Pakistan is 162 ha with 741 tons of production (fresh fruit). Pakistan is an importer of dry figs as the production is not sufficient to cater to the needs of the growing population. In 2007-08, Pakistan imported dry figs 217 tones worth PKR 4.5 million Turkey, Iran and Afghanistan being the main source of imported fig.

 

Value-added Products

 

Figs can be eaten fresh or dried, used in jam-making, and pickling. Most commercial production is dried or otherwise processed since the ripe fruit does not transport figs. Chopped, diced, and sliced figs are incorporated into food products. When dried, figs are added to cookies, bars, and snacks. Besides high-quality figs for fresh consumption, a small number of figs are canned. The dried seeds in figs contain oil that is 30 percent of fatty acids. This edible oil can be used as a lubricant. The natural humectants in figs make them a beneficial ingredient in such health and beauty products as soap, moisturizers, fragrance, and candles. After the fruit harvest, fig leaves are plucked and used for fodder in India. In southern France, fig leaves are used as a source of perfume material; the leaves create a woody-mossy scent Fig trees can be successfully grown in a heated greenhouse – either when directly planted into the soil or when grown in a container in a greenhouse. It’s worth bearing in mind that it can be quite expensive to heat a greenhouse for the sake of a fig tree, and there’s a lot of watering involved, so before you commit to growing a fig tree inside your greenhouse to take into consideration the pros and cons. One good method of getting over these issues is to grow a fig tree in a container instead, as this can be then be moved outside in the warmer months and both you and your fig tree will get the best of both worlds.

The plants can grow to a considerable height – between 2m height and 3.5m wide – and benefit from having something to grow up against, such as a wall, fence, or canes going up the side of a greenhouse. In order to get the best from the plants, plant those 20cm away from the wall so that they’ve got space to fan out and be trained up and along the wall. The economic life of the plant is about 8-10 years, the yield increases with increase in canopy size of the tree and stabilizes during the eighth year, and production of per tree 18 KG in the year mean the number of the plant in an acre is 260 x 18 kg = 4680 kg or 4.866 tons as compared to 3 to 4 tons in the open field. The price of the fig in retail PKR 2000 per kg mean 4680 x 2000= PKR 9,360,000. The International Market price is GBP 9.49 per pound or PKR 3823 per KG.

 

Similarly the cultivation of Papaya is another profitable fruit tree in the greenhouse. According to one of the progressive farmer Mr. Ch., Zulfiqar Ali, he is growing papaya in Gujranwala for 6 years. According to him that he is earning PKR 6,600,000 from 1200 plants in one acre in an open field. According to one study 1800 plants can be grown in one acre in 20-30 gallon pots in a greenhouse and gain one papaya melon weight up to 9 kg or and 40 kg per plant. In that case, 1800 plants x 40 kg = 72000 kg fruit are being produced. 72000 kg x market price PKR 137/kg = PKR 9,864,000.00 mean 25 % more profit. Now he is preparing to export the papaya fruit to GCC countries.

Pineapple is profitable fruit tree to be cultivated in the greenhouse and also in Dutch Bucket hydroponics system 25 % faster and 30 % more than to soil, PINEAPPLE is small tree cultivate and grow in lines with a distance of 6 FT and row to row should be 5-6 FT. 200 flowers produce 1 fruit in one time. Each tree can produce 2-3 fruits in his lifetime of 28 months. Each fruit weight is 1 kg to 1.5 kg normally. Economics prospect are very high. 1225 trees in one acre, 1225 x 1.5 kg = 1837 kg and 3 fruit in lifetime = 1837 x 3= 5512 kg in 28 month per acre. 5512 kg x PK 350/kg = PK 1,929,200 in 28 month.

Custard Apple is also considering a profitable fruit tree in the greenhouse, it is low-cost production. Custard Apple can grow in 4 x4 lines and around 250 plants can grow in one acre and the total estimated cost is PK 49748 per year only and production of the plant is 35-50 kg or 9.5 to 11 tons per acre after 3 years and every year, as compared to cost, the income is level higher. In Pakistan, custard apple price is PK 800 kg that means if production is availed 11000 kg x PK 800 /kg = PK 8,800,000.00 .

The recommended Exotic Tropical fruit tree for Zone 10.

      Apple, Avocado, Bananas, Oranges, Lemon, Lime, Lychee, Pineapple, Grapes, Dates, Fig, Loquat, Papaya, Pomegranates, Plum, Peach, Sapodilla, Guava, Jujube Chinese, Sour sop, kumquat fruit, Memey, jackfruit, all berries, Cherry and 200 varieties of fruits.

 

 

BUILD – OPERATE – TRANSFOR (BOT) BUSINESS PLAN

The proposed project is based on Build- Operate- Transfer basis. Project design rendering to Pakistan agriculture conditions, farmer’s knowledge, experiences, their own economic condition, bank loan facilities, inputs availability, and local and market situations. The consultant company will assist farmer or new investors in the Construction of infrastructure, provide management in production and Sale support in local and international markets. Investor Land transform into modern production orchard within 10 years. 

 

The investor facilitate with initial investment for construction of Climate control first structure on 500 x 157 FT, plantation cost, operation cost at least 3years either from his/her own source or bank loan equalization of 1-hectare construction and 3 years operation facilitation.

 

The consultant company will reinvest first greenhouse revenue in the construction of other 22.5 Acres. As per the below plan in 10 years

 

The investor will get his f 12 % profit on revenue after years, and then after investor will get mutually agreed profit in the remaining 8 years. 

The proposed plan is Climate control Orchard, size is 25 Acres or 118 089,000 SQFT with ideal Dimension of 1043.55 x 1043.55 FT. Suggested Greenhouse size is 500 x 157, 18 FT air passage between every two structures, 60 FT road passage, construction of the machine room, storeroom, water pound, etc.  Total of 10 greenhouse 500 x 157 FT will construct on 25 acres.

 

The plan offers the following services.

 

  • Construction of greenhouses in 25 acres
  • Plantation in each greenhouse
  •       Monitor/manage production
  • Arrange sale support in local and in international market.
  • Manage package and transportation up to Market.
  • Negotiate bank loan for initial setup (If an investor needs a loan facility) on banking terms and conditions.
  • Training of designated staff
  • Construction of the road, water pound, storage of input and outputs.
  • Establish an inventory control system along with accounts and financial management.
  • Value edition if the client required.
  • Facilitate registration of Client own a company with all concerned departments.
  • Technology will transfer to an investor in 10 years.
  • Consultant Company will charge 7 % of revenue after the third year.
  •       The consultant will charge 6 % of the total invest in each greenhouse.
  • Bank payment will make sure by the investor and Consultant Company.

 

STEP of construction of 25 acres orchard.

 

  • PAPAYA

Papaya tree grow in first greenhouse, because Papaya produce fruit every year and high yielding tree.

Description

Details

Fruit tree

Papaya

Number of plants

3500

Per plant production

30 kg

Production in KGs

105,000 KG

Retail price

PKR 137/-

Revenue

PKR 14,385,000.00

 

  • Water melon

Water melon is being suggested in second greenhouse due to higher yield and growth in a year. High weight details, but small weight water melon plant 11000 in Hectare.

Description

Details

Fruit

Water Melon

Number of plants

2057 to 2500 plant and small size fruit plant 11000

Number of per plant

2-4 normally 14 kg weight small water melon weight 7/kg

Retail price of one water melon

PKR 20/kg

Revenue

6,160,000.00

 

  • FIG

Food products containing figs include fig paste, fig concentrate, fig powder, fig nuggets, and diced and sliced figs. The natural flavor of figs can be preserved in fig jam, preserves, and paste. Eight productive stems (109.5 t ha−1)and greenhouse conditions of fig is an excellent alternative production, allowing to collect up to 20 times of fresh fruit yielding in relation to the plantations in the open field. Fruiting 1-2 years

Description

Details

Fruit tree

FIG

Number of plants

870 plants

Per hectare production

20-25 tons with 6-8 stems 180 to 360 fruit /plant

Price

PKR 825 to 1000 /kg dry fig 1450/kg

Revenue

16,500,000.00

  • Pineapple Pine apple is most profitable fruits growth in 18- 24 month. 7 year life span, Red Spanish verities is most popular.

Description

Details

Fruit tree

PINEAPPLE

Number of plants

7000

Per plant production

2- 2.7 kg x 2 heads

Weight

37800 kg

Price

PKR 275/kg

Revenue

PKR 10,395,000.00

 

 

 

  • Avocado

Avocados are a naturally nutrient-dense food and contain nearly 20 vitamins and minerals. Highly productive and profitable. 5-7 years fruiting age. Start fruiting within 4-5 years

Description

Details

Fruit tree

Avocado

Number of plant

500

Per plant production

200 to 500 fruits per plant or 100 kg in a year

Price

PKR 299 to PKR 1014 and 2-3 avocado in a kg

Revenue

PKR 14,950,000 in peak year

 

  • CHERRY

Wick Hydroponic system and soil system, 15-20 fruiting age, growing on soil KING BRING BUSH METHOD & SAA METHOD

Description

Details

Fruit plant

CHERRY

Number of plants

2000-3000 plants

Per hectare production

10-19 tons 0r 19300 KGS

Price

PKR 827/kg

Revenue

PKR 15,961,100.00

  • BARRIERS , Blue barriers,

 Blueberry age 25-30 years, blueberry bush needs 2 to 3 years to become mature enough to produce fruit, in greenhouse each year fruiting,

Description

Details

Fruit plant

Blueberry

Number of plants

4000-7000

Production of per plant

1750 GRM or 7 pints

Price

PKR 850/KG

Revenue

PKR 10,115,000.00

  • RASPBERRIES and BLACKBERRY

First year canes are moderately tall and the fruiting canes can give between l20-l50percent of the yields of the annual system. The biennial system has no first year canes in the fruiting year and the fruiting canes can give between l50-250percent of the yields of the annual system. Growing method new Stiles system. Blueberry fruiting 1-2 years

Description

Details

Fruits plants

Raspberries

Number of plant in one acre 310×155 FT

1200

Production of per plant

6850 KGS (per plant is 1 to 2 quarts)

Price

PKR 1040 to 1450/kg

Revenue

PKR 7,124,000.00

Fruit plants

Blackberry

Number of plants in one acre 310×155 FT

1815 plants

Production of per plant

5-10 KG (12705 KGS)

Price

PKR 2000 to 4000 /KG

Revenue

PKR 31,762,500

Total

PKR 38,886,500.00

 

 

 

  • PEACH PLANTS

10 years production age, Dwarf variety 2500 to 3000 PARC recommended variety is GF 677

Description

Details

Fruit plant

Peach plants

Number of plants

2500 to 3000 plants

Production of hectare

22 to 25 tons

Price

PKR 235 to 240 /kg

Revenue

5,405,000.00

  • GRAPES

Greenhouse grapes grow best when the roots are planted outside the greenhouse, and the vine is trained into the greenhouse through gaps near ground level. and requires ditch spacing 90cm or 80cm, ditch depth 8 ~ 12cm, spacing in the rows 33cm or 25cm, plant in ditch, mu plants 2277 or 3330 strains,

Description

Details

Fruit plant

GRAPES

Number of plants

5574

Production

50 tons

Price

PKR 125 /KG

Revenue

PKR 6,250,000.00

  • MANGO

    Greenhouse cover with white screen net, the distance between plants was 2.25 m and Distance between rows is three meters. The rows were oriented from North to South. Drip irrigation system for irrigation. 90 leaves, production 10 % higher. 10-12 years production life

 

Description

Details

Fruit plant

Mango

Number of plant

1020 plants

Production

 25,000 optimal level normally 20-22000 kg

Prices

80 KG

Revenue

2,000,000.00

 

  • KINOW

Plant height 8.83 FT, plant canopy 17 FT and plant to plant distance 11×11 FT. 80 leaves per branch, 414 fruits & fruit set 27,56 %. 48.56% juice. Rootstock growing

Description

Details

Fruit plant

Kinow

Number of plant

613 plants

Production

414 = 253,782 fruits or 36,254 kg, 21148 dozens

Prices

PKR 80

Revenue

PKR 1,691,880.00

   

 

  • LEMON

Plant to plant distance 5 FT and row to row distance 11 FT, rootstock, 10 lemon in one kg

Fruit tree

Lemon

Number of plants

1350

Production

1500 /tree

Prices

PKR160 5-8 KG /box

Revenue

1,920,000.00

Fruit planning can be changed as per area climate, production, client’s requirements, marketing opportunities and profitability.

 

Area

Plants replacement.

Baluchistan

Apple, Apricot , Almond , Pistachio, olives, Peach,  Citrus, Pomegranate walnuts etc.

KPK

Plums, Red Persimmons, Litchi, Gwalerai, Cashewnut, olives etc.

Gilgit

Pistachio, sea-buck thorn plate, olives, walnuts , etc.

Sindh

Kiwi, Mango, Lychee, all Citrus, bears, Banana,

Punjab

Kinow , liquate, plums, mango, all citrus etc.

VALUE EDITION: Proposed Fruits plants are highly profitable and produce many by-products. Like FIG, food products containing figs include fig paste, fig concentrate, fig powder, fig nuggets, and diced and sliced figs. The natural flavor of figs can be preserved in fig jam, preserves, and paste. To make fig concentrate, which replaces sucrose and corn syrup, the water is extracted. Similarly, Lemon oil is value addition and very profitable the lemon oil price is PKR 1200 /450 ML.

  • Key participants:Seed supplier, Fertilizer supplier, and marketing companies are the Strategic partners of the project. If the bank loan is utilized then the bank is also a vital performer in this project.
  • Pricing: Electricity, water source, seed pricing, fertilizer pricing are on schedule and on the due date. Similarly, if the bank is involved then bank installment on the due date is a second important chapter. Market mechanism and commission ratio and transportation are other keys are to determine the cost of the project.  Skill labor and wages are the fourth regular spending, in proposed project one Agriculturist, electrician, plumber and 2 labor will be on board on regular basis.
  • 12 % Investor share in the first after 3 years and then after mutually agreed on regular share on revenue.
  • Bank loan and interest are based on the Kibor rate and bank charges.
  • Consultant company cost is two prepositions.
  • Infrastructure costs 6 % of the total cost of total construction in each unit.
  • Consultancy charges 7 % of the revenue of each year in the 10 years.
  • After 10 years if the client further consultancy 2 % of total revenue. 

THE MARKET ANALYSIS

The consultant company is extending marketing and sale support, but access to valuable buyer and export firms has also important role. The marketing strategy is sale to direct supply to the supply chain marts, supper stores, and hospitality industry. The processing units are the bulk buyer of the products. Second indulge in house packing and establish on brand name and arrange online direct sale. Strategy is direct sale to Clients or YOP system.

  • Industry type:
  • local buyer
  • Processing industry.
  • Exporters ,Hospitality industry
  • Local market
  • Value addition industry.

Market segmentation: Marketing commission 12 %, Packing 0.5 % and transportation 0.5% of costing. Fluctuation in infrastructure cost and inputs cost 10 %.

Competition: Market is competition is very higher and but demand and supply gap is very vast so the competition is very marginal.

Value addition, Processing industry, Pharmaceutical industry are able to transform the products in oil, juices, paste, powder and in Jam.

SWOT analysis: STRENGTHS

·       Vision is clear

·       Growing capacity is available

·       Best growing technology is available

·       Having access to best inputs

·       Skill labour is available

 

WEAKNESSES

·       Disadvantages

·       Gap in capabilities

·       Cash Flow

·       Suppliers

·       Experience

·       Areas to improve

·       Causes of lose sales

OPPORTUNITIES

·       Gap of demand and supply reduce the competition in market.

·       Export opportunity is available

·       CPEC, GCC, market is open.

·       Pest less and chemical free production system is providing to chance to avoid rejection.

THREATS

·       Economy movement

·       Obstacles faced

·       Competitor actions

·       Political impacts

·       Environmental effects

·       Loss of key staff

·       Market demand

 

PRODUCTION COST

     Variable operation cost will be fluctuate each year, because of induction 10 different growing units in the 10 years. Infrastructure cost is may differ with others infrastructure units due to dollar fluctuation, labour cost, material cost and change in government duties and taxes. Similarly each fruit plants has their own age of majority, production cycle and production age and needs of inputs, seed and fertilizer etc., consequently exact infrastructure cost and operational cost determination is based on estimation and cover with 10% fluctuation addition in cost.

 

Description

Papaya

Water melon

Fig

Pineapple

Avocado

Cherry

Number of plant

3500

2500

870

7000

500

3000

Per plant seed

PKR 7/-

PKR 4/-

PKR 89/-

PKR 15/-

PKR 650/plant

PKR 37/-

Seed/seedling

3500/500

200/50

1790/20

450/30

PKR 650/plant

PKR 450/12

Total

24500

10,000

77,430

105,000

325,000

111,000

Production cost

195,784

222,750

276,800

345,800

435,200

1,300,767

Total

220,284/year

232,750/year

354,230/year

450,800/year

790,970 year

1,411,767/year

Description

blueberry

Blackberry

peach

Grapes

Mango

Kinow

Number of plants

7000

1200+1200

3000

5574

1020

613

Per seed

899/15

87

250/TREE

36/seed

PKR 650

 

See/seedling

4078/ plant

871/10

GF 677

360/ 10 seed

650/PLANT

From lemon

Total

419,533

208,800

750,000

201,221

663,000

 

Production cost

416,670

457,800

389,910

663,185

407,524

432,000

TOTAL

836,203

666,600

1,139,910

864,406

1,070,524

432,000

             

 The cost of fruit tree production 2 to 2.4 % of revenue.

OPERATION COST

Centrally control operation system will develop for the development of 25 acres.

  • Electricity control system
  • Water pumping system
  • Irrigation control system
  • Fertilizer injection system
  • Central control IoT system, system will soil fertility, soil moisture, soil PH level, Monitor plants, weather condition, greenhouse temperature, Humidity etc.
  • Central stocking system.
  • Central management system

Description

Details

Electricity

17 /unit

Water

0.45 / gallon

Labour

 

Management system

0.5%

Consultant company fee

10 % of revenue

Bank installment/interest

13 %

Land owner return

12 % of revenue

 Green agriculture is the application of sustainable development principles to agriculture: ensuring the production of fruit productivity and profit, while respecting the ecological, economic, and social limits that ensure the durability of this production. For instance, sustainable farming minimizes the use of pesticides. 

Key principles are linked to sustainable agriculture: 

  • 1.Develop efficient, self-sufficient and economical production systems that provide decent   incomes
  • 2.Preserve and protect biodiversity and territories
  • 3.Optimize the use of natural resources
  • 4.Manage the quality of air, water and soil
  • 5. Increase energy efficiency in food production and distribution.

 The Farm management draws on agricultural economics for information on prices, markets, agricultural policy, and economic institutions such as leasing and credit. It also draws on plant sciences for information on soils, seed, and fertilizer, on control of weeds, insects, and disease, and on rations and breeding; on agricultural engineering for information on farm buildings, machinery, irrigation, crop drying, drainage, and erosion control systems rehabilitation of land fertility. 

Outline of the operating plan. 

1-     Landowner and Consultant Company reached on production plan and sign of contract of smart orchard development on a BOT basis within 10 years.

2-     Land the owner registers an agriculture company.

3-     Land owner and Consultant Company agreed on fruits plant to grow in 10 years.

4-     Mutually agreed on profit share after 3 years onward in 10 years.

5-     Settled financial arrangements either first invest by landowner through his own source or bank loan facilitation on banking term and condition, Consultant Company provide a complete growing, and sales plan to payback plan.

6-     Consultant firm arranges negotiation with local banks, international loaning agency, and arrange documentation as per the requirement of the bank. The landowner will pay a mutually agreed amount to arrange all loaning facilities.

7-     Consultant company laydown design according to the dimension of land.

8-     Consultant the Company manage all equipment’s locally or internationally, installation of greenhouse on settle price with Landowner.

9-     Followed the growing plan

10-   Establish a central control system, electricity, water distribution, centrally control fertilization injection system and central control monitoring system based on LoRa IoT technology to monitor soil fertility, soil moisture, weather condition, and weather forecasting system and greenhouse temperature and humidity control system.

11-   Establish input and output storage.

12- Establish electrical facilitation, installing own transformer to avoid voltage fluctuation and will establish alternative energy source as per agreement of landowner to cut cantankerous electricity bill.

13- Hiring technical staff and labor and arrange training for them.

14- Establish orchard management software

15- Financial record-keeping

16- Establish sale support mechanism.

17- Development plan is based on early harvesting tree too late majority trees.

18- Establish all smart agriculture management on a BOT basis. 

  • Order fulfillment:Completion of orchard and handover farm management to Landowner within 10 years.
  • An important benefit of a business plan is the pre-production knowledge gained from the homework involved in putting the plan together
  • Payment:Consultant firm 5 % on documentation for banking loan, 6 % on the construction of each greenhouse, and 7 % services charges on production facilitation of revenue of each year. 12 % landowner return and after 3 years mutually agreed on profit. Bank interest payment, Climate control greenhouse technology, soil and soilless technology (Hydroponic system) and IoT the technology-based Monitoring system, and alternative solar energy source base technology.
  • Key customers: Hospitality, processing industry, supermarkets, and fruit export companies, local cold storage, and companies. Labour needsAgriculturist, skilled labor, electrician and plumber, and transportation and packing facilitators.

Facilities: Smart orchard development on BOT (build – operate – transfer) basis

Growing plan

Plants

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

Year 6

Year 7

Year 8

Year 9

Year 10

Year 11

Papaya

                     

Production

                     

Lemon

                     

Production

                     

Water melon

                     

Production

                     

Pineapple

                     

Production

                     

Avocado

                     

Production

                     

Fig

                     

Production

                     

Mango

                     

Production

                     

Citrus

                     

Production

                     

Cherry

                     

Production

                     

Blackberry

                     

Production

                     

Grapes

                     

Production

                     

 

Marketing & SALES PLAN

The sales plan is based on Vertical diversification marketing strategy, production, harvesting by processing, packing, economical Transportation and retail selling. Identification of true and potential market, Price Mechanism, and PYO plan with direct methods most importantly Customer pick-up fruit from Orchard. Online/social media market strategy is the key tool for marketing. 

 Key messages: PEST-LESS and CHEMICAL-FREE

  • Marketing /salesis the Identification of true/potential market and buyers.
  • Direct farmer to buyer, mean establish own outlet or arrange an online sale, provide a chance to reduce marketing cost, cater to consumer desire to buy (and willingness to perhaps pay a premium for) riper, fresher, higher-quality fruits.
  • Direct sales mechanism supermarket prices and to avoid paying for the services of wholesalers and retailers. Bypassing intermediaries increase profitability.
  • profit depends on many things mainly the Pricing formula set on the cost of production, return on land, labor, capital, and managerial effort. Price is set based on the income needed to cover fixed and variable costs and provide a profit.
  • By treating the desired profit level as a fixed cost, the seller can determine the volume of sales needed to reach a profit goal. For example, if a profit of PKR100 per week is desired with a 40 percent margin between cost and price, the formula to use is: Breakeven point = fixed costs and desired profit ÷ contribution-to-overhead = (PKR 300 + PKR100) ÷ 40 cents = PKR1,000 sales Selling price (SP) = cost of item + desired markup SP = .80 + (.80 x .40) SP = .80 + .3200 SP = PKR1.12 A markup is calculated as a percent of cost, and margin is calculated as a percent of the selling price.
  • Sales can be determined as a percentage of past sales, of estimated future sales, or a combination of the two. Past sales usually are on the conservative side, and estimated future sales figures tend to be optimistic. The combination approach provides a more realistic method during periods of changing economic conditions.
  • Break-even analysis is a useful tool for coping with this type of problem. Break-even analysis can determine the right price with respect to a given volume or the necessary volume with respect to a given price. To understand break-even analysis, it is necessary to understand fixed and variable costs. Fixed costs exist whether or not the farmer sells any merchandise. These obligations must be met regardless of sales volume. Taxes, insurance, salary, interest, basic utility costs, advertising, and depreciation are all fixed costs. Variable costs are those that are correlated with the level of production and associated sales volume (fertilizer, Agriculture-chemicals, etc.), so higher production results in higher variable costs.
  • Development plan is based on reinvestment to other acres within 10 years. So saving will play a vital role in development.
  • Financial plans are used to estimate capital needs, to project future financial circumstances, and to make decisions about financial actions needed to carry out a business plan. Financial plans are comprised of three parts — projected balance sheets, projected income statements, and projected cash flow statements. A balance sheet shows the operation’s assets and liabilities at a point in time. An income statement is used to evaluate an operation’s profit level for a given time period. A cash flow statement is a summary of cash inflows and outflows for a given time period and is used to project amounts and timings of borrowing and loan payments. Projected financial statements is being used as an integral part of contingency plans to address possible problems. An established management plan of management controls and contingency plans management control is the process of assuring that the organization’s mission and objectives are accomplished effectively and efficiently. Financial management plans are used for planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling the operation in order to achieve the mission and objectives. Controlling involves monitoring the business plan to ensure that it is carried out properly. The management plan developed with the idea that it is the driving force to see that the other areas of the business development plan are completed. The management system should provide information useful in monitoring the marketing, production, and finance areas.
  • Projected start-up costs:The first investment is PKR 29,923,546, cost split into a variable, 3 years production, and fixed cost. Climate control first greenhouse and fix a one-time cost.
  • Profit in years on first investment is PKR 75,921,927 after 10 years.
  • 12 % profit after 3 years on revenue
  • + 12 % profit share on revenue after 6 years of plan.
  • 25 acres greenhouse orchard

ECONOMICS OF BOT PLAN

COSTING & PROJECTION

Plants

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

Year 6

Year 7

Year 8

Year 9

Year 10

Papaya

220,284

242,312

266,543

293,197

322,516

354,767

390,243

429,267

472,193

519,412

Lemon

 

403,750

375,600

413,160

454,476

499,923

549,915

604,906

665,396

731,935

W/melon

 

232,750

256,025

281,627

309,789

 

 

 

 

 

P/ Apple

 

 

450,800

345,800

380,380

418,418

460,259

506,284

556,912

612,603

Avocado

 

 

760,200

435,200

478,720

526,592

579,251

637,176

700,893

770,982

FIG

 

 

 

354,230

276,800

304,480

334,928

368,420

405,262

445,788

Mango

 

 

 

 

1,070,524

663,000

729,300

802,230

882,453

970,798

Kinow

 

 

 

 

864,000

432,000

475,200

522,720

574,992

632,491

Cherry

 

 

 

 

 

1,411,767

1300767

1430847

1573931

1731324

Blue berry

 

 

 

 

 

836,209

457,800

503,580

553,938

609,331

Grapes

 

 

 

 

 

864,406

663,185

729,503

802,453

882,698

Electricity

256,920

282,612

310,873

341,960

376,156

413,771

659,148

786,262

877,129

1,085,801

Water

11,000

22,000

55,000

66,000

227,272

300,000

302,000

325,000

350,000

375,000

Labour

276,000

276,000

792,000

792,000

792,200

792,200

1008000

1008000

1146400

1146400

Packing

30,000

45,000

150,000

180,000

180,000

300,000

300,000

330,000

363,000

399,300

Transportation

16000

24000

40,000

80,000

126,000

260,000

276,000

293,000

312,300

333,530

Season labour

75,000

75,000

135,000

148,500

163,350

179,685

197,650

217,415

239,156

263,071

Social media

 

 

 

 

10,000

11,000

12,100

13,310

14,641

16,105

Total

885204

1603424

3592041

3731674

6132183

8568218

8695746

9507920

10491049

11376600

Increase 10 % yearly

 

 

 

 

COSTING & PROJECTION

CONSTRUCTION  COST

Description

Details

Skelton 500×155 x 22 FT

8,484,225.00

Cover sheet and profile

2,416,274.00

Ventilation system

4,358,607.00

C02 generation

956,160.00

Fogging and misting system

1,252,700.00

Shading system Manual

1,764,999.00

Civil work

2,451,425.00

Land preparing

1,200,750.00

DRIP IRRIGATION

936,987.00

TOTAL:

23,822,127.00

ONE TIME Construction Cost for 25 Acres

Description

Details

Commander water system  Controller

1,294,000.00

Fertilizer INJECTOR

1,592,000.00

Fertilizer ADJUSTER

876,000.00

PUMP 10 HP

255,000.00

Tube well

1,780,000.00

Transformer 200 KV and distribution line with in Farm

1,850,000.00

Control room, transformer room, store room

2,020,750.00

Accessories

590,900.00

Total

10,178,650.00

Grand total

340,000,777.00

Service charges

2,040,046.00

 

REVENUE OF PLAN

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REVENUE SHEET

             

 

 

GREENHOUSE ORCHARD

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DESCRIPTION

YEAR 1

YEAR 2

YEAR 3

YEAR 4

YEAR 5

YEAR 6

YEAR 7

YEAR 8

YEAR 9

YEAR 10

PAPAYA

14385000

15823500

17405850

19146435

21061078.50

23167186.35

25483904.99

28032295.48

30835525.03

33919077.54

WATER MELON

 

6160000

6776000

7453600

8198960

 

 

 

 

 

LEMON

 

 

12960000

14256000

15681600

17249760

18974736

20872209.6

22959430.56

25255373.62

PINE APPLE

 

 

 

 

44941638.50

10395000

11434500

12577950

13835745

15219319.5

AVOCADO

 

 

 

 

 

24950000

27445000

30189500

33208450

36529295

FIG

 

 

 

 

 

 

83338140.99

16500000

18150000

19965000

MANGO

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20,000,000

22000000

24200000

KINOW

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1691880

CHERRY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15961000

17557100

BLACBERRY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

38886500

42775150

GRAPES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6250000

6875000

GP

14,385,000

21,983,500

37,141,850

40,856,035

44,941,638

75,761,946

83,338,140

128,171,955

202086650.6

223987195.7

waste or unsold 2%

287,700

439,670

742,837

817,120

898,832

1,515,238

1,666,762

2,563,439

4,041,733

4,479,743

TOTAL REVENUE

14,097,300

21,543,830

36,399,013

40,038,915

44,042,806

74,246,708

81,671,378

125,608,516

198,044,917

219,507,451

 

 

 

 

STATEMENT OF ACCOUNT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

STATEMENT OF ACCOUNT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GREENHOUSE ORCHARD

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                     

DESCRIPTION

YEAR 1

YEAR 2

YEAR 3

YEAR 4

YEAR 5

YEAR 6

YEAR 7

YEAR 8

YEAR 9

YEAR 10

REVENUE

14,097,300

21,543,830

36,399,013

40,038,915

44,042,806

74,246,708

81,671,378

125,608,516

198,044,917

#########

EXPENDITURE

885,204

1,603,424

3,592,041

3,731,674

6,132,183

8,568,218

8,695,746

9,507,920

10,491,049

11,376,600

GP

13,212,096

19,940,406

35,806,972

36,307,241

37,910,623

65,678,490

72,975,632

116,100,596

187,553,868

#########

Market Commission

1,409,730

2,154,383

3,639,901

4,003,891

4,404,280

7,424,670

8,167,137

12,560,851

19,804,491

21,784,940

ADMIN

175,000

192500

211750

232925

256217.5

281839.25

310023.175

341025.4925

375128.042

412640.85

UTILITIES

50,000

55000

60500

66550

73205

80525.5

88578.05

97435.855

107179.441

117897.38

TRAVELING

50,000

55000

60500

66550

73205

80525.5

88578.05

97435.855

107179.441

117897.38

LANDOWNER SHARE 12 %

     

4,804,669

5285135.9

5813649.49

6395014.439

7034515.883

7737967.47

8511764.2

LANDOWNER PROFIT 12 %

           

9,800,565

10780621.5

11858683.7

13044552

CONSULTANT COMPANY 7%

     

2,802,724

3082996.4

3391296.04

3730425.644

4103468.208

4513815.03

4965196.5

BEFORE TAX

15,782,030

24,000,713

43,371,664

52,016,224

57,217,846

62939630.38

69233593.42

76156952.76

83772648

92149913

17 % INCOME

2,682,945

4,080,121

7,373,182

8,842,758

9,727,033

10,699,737

11,769,710

12,946,681

14,241,350

15,665,485

LAND TAX

562,500

562,500

562,500

562,500

562,500

562,500

562,500

562,500

562,500

562,500

INCOME

12,536,585

19,358,092

35,435,982

42,610,966

46,928,313

51,677,393

56,901,383

62,647,771

68,968,798

75,921,927

BANK LOAN INTEREST

                   

NET INCOME

12,536,585

19,358,092

35,435,982

42,610,966

46,928,313

51,677,393

56,901,383

62,647,771

68,968,798

75,921,927

                     
                       

 

Instructions for Getting Started on Profit & Loss Projections

Statement of account sheet is determine the profitability of proposed project, proposed plan is based on one time investment and reinvestment of profit to develop another 7.5 hectare. Therefore annual profit and loss sheet will demined the profit and loss every year and also projected future of 10 years.

Steps for preparation:

Step 1: COMPANY NAME:-

Step 2: Plan Execution starting date will start once Client or Client Bank hand over Frist Investment.

Step 3: For each month, enter the estimated salaries, marketing, utilities, and other items that are projected.

Step 4: The Costing is based on all operational cost, plantations, Construction cost, labour wages, landowner profit shares and consultant services charges.

 

DUA ENTERPRISES

www.duaenterprises.net

shoaibdua2009@gmail.com

03341418925, 03004218953

 

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