Concept of Greenhouse

 

Greenhouses are frames of the inflated structure covered with a transparent material in which crops are grown under controlled environment conditions. … The primary environmental parameter traditionally controlled is temperature, usually providing heat to overcome extreme cold conditions. Greenhouse Technology is the technique of providing favorable environmental conditions to the plants. It is rather used to protect the plants from adverse climatic conditions such as wind, cold, precipitation, excessive radiation, extreme temperature, insects and diseases.

 

 The origin of life on earth explains the basic concept of the greenhouse. Before the origin of any living organism on the earth, the temperature of earth was around -18°C due to the absence of an atmosphere between earth and sun. Various gases namely nitrogen (N), carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), oxygen (O2), nitrous oxide (N2O), etc. available inside earth came out through spaces between plates of earth and formed a porous layer around earth, known as atmosphere. The newly formed atmosphere around the earth had a unique property that it absorbed ultraviolet and far-infrared radiation coming from the sun and allowed only short-wavelength (0.3-3 μm) radiation emitted by the sun to reach the earth surface. Further, the atmosphere did not allow long-wavelength (> 3.0 μm) radiation emitted by the earth. Hence, the trapped thermal energy raised the temperature of the earth and air between earth and atmosphere. The rise of the temperature of the air is known as the greenhouse effect. According to Encyclopedia 2000, the greenhouse effect for the environment is defined as:

 

Greenhouse Effect – the term for the role the atmosphere plays in insulating and warming the earth’s surface. The atmosphere is largely transparent to incoming solar radiation. When this radiation strikes the earth’s surface, some of it is absorbed, thereby warming the earth’s surface. The surface of the earth emits some of this energy back out in the form of infrared radiation. As this infrared radiation travels through the atmosphere, much of it is absorbed by atmospheric gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and water vapor. These gases then re-emit infrared radiation, some of which strikes and is absorbed by the earth. The absorption of infrared energy by the atmosphere and the earth called the greenhouse effect, maintains a temperature range on earth that is hospitable to life

Gypsophila Greenhouse Features

Growing Great Cut Gypsophila Crops is from small to large flower sizes, and in various growing conditions, today’s varieties excel. Gypsophila’s is durable application comes from its vast variety in Pakistan and rest of the world. The incredible range of types and styles provide sought-after features that answer all tastes and needs. From small to large flower sizes, to different lengths and weights in stems, to selections for growers’ wide variety of soils and climates, today’s Gypsophila excel. High yields, extended shelf life and broad market appeal add to the long benefits list of this cut flower favorite.

Breeding has focused on incorporating characteristics such as resistance to over-saturated soil, vigorous re-growth after cut-back, high productivity, high disease resistance, low supplemental lighting requirements, enhanced performance in hot weather and more, making it easy for growers to select the best varieties to ensure success in their specific growing conditions and locations.

From the original tiny white blooms, a huge colour array now offers unending choices, from pure, brilliant white and ball-shaped to flexible stems on a wide canopy, to pure white, bright white and white touched with a hint of green or yellow, and even now in shades of pink.

Flower sizes range from five to 14 mm, none less impactful than the first. Profusions of flowers are possible year-round, ideal for innovative and attractive flower combinations.

REQUIRED STRATEGIES
whether you are producing gypsophila in greenhouses, tunnels or open fields, a few standards hold true for quality gypsophila. Planting,  establishment of plants, pinching, using supporting nets, application of excess lighting according to season and variety, and the regular irrigation and plant protection treatments should all be part of a successful strategy.

SOIL
Gypsophila thrives in all types of drained soils. Light soils are preferable, as are detached media such as volcanic ash.

RECOMMENDED TEMPERATURE
Provide temperatures of 15 C during night and 25 C during the day. Gypsophila is sensitive less than 5 C.

LIGHTING
when daylight is less than 12 to 13 hours, depending on the environment’s temperature and light intensities, employ a lighting system of 100 lux.

HORMONES
Spray 150 ppm of the hormone gibberellic acid (GA), typically after the pruning stage and when growth is delayed.

IRRIGATION
Water thoroughly using two to three drip lines and an overhead system. Gypsophila is a low maintenance plant perfectly in fact; it requires no water during the fertilization process. It’s only in long periods of dryness that the plants require a little water

PLANTING DENSITY
planting density depends on the variety, but in general, six to eight plants per square meter net, or alternatively 40,000 to 50,000 plants per hectare equals 10,000 square meters gross. Bed width should be one meter wide, and the paths between beds should be a 0.50 meter.

EXPECTED YIELD
much like planting density, yield depends on the variety and the number of flushes. Typically you can expect an average of approximately 35,000 to 50,000 branches per flush/dun am or 350,000 to 500,000 branches per flush/hectare. Commercial flowering flushes per year will be two to 2.5, meaning a total of 70,000 to 100,000 flowers per dun am/year or 700,000 to 1,000,000 flowers per hectare/year.  In greenhouse highest productive (78 flower stems m-2) and qualitative (1027 g m-2) results is achievable. Significant differences were evidenced among cultivars: ‘Paniculata’ produced the maximum amount (103 flower m-2) of stems; ‘Dana’ supplied those with the highest average weight (1705 g m-2).

 

FLOWERING FLUSH DURATION
Gypsophila typically flowers about three months after planting or pruning, depending on the variety and the geographical and physical location of the crop.

 

AFTER SECOND FLUSH
After the second flush, prune plants, usually two to three cm above ground level. Apply one to two gibberellic acid (GA) hormone sprays. Use supporting nets (two nets and a number of lengthwise cords). Finally, provide the regular irrigation and spray treatments according to requirements.

 

HARVESTED FLOWER TREATMENT
quickly places the harvested flowers in solution or water. The solution should consist of: STS (silver thiosulfate) – 0.15 per cent + T.O.G.3 – 0.15 per cent + sugar – five per cent in the summer, and seven per cent in the winter (or alternatively Vitax 21 – 0.15 per cent corresponding to STS, Vitax 33 – 0.15 per cent corresponding to T.O.G3 + sugar five to seven per cent depending on the season, or another option, using Forever Gypsophila – 0.5 per cent + sugar).

 

 

 

 

GROWING MEDIUM OF DIFFERENT VARITIES

  • FESTIVAL SERIES
  • PANICULATA
  • REPENS

In greenhouse Gypsophila growth is optimal in container plant and even for its ability to add interest in flower beds. Use a well-drained, sterile peat/perlite mix with a pH range of 6.0 to 6.5. Maintain EC levels of 1.5 to 1.8. Gypsophila seeds are both annual and perennial, and are sown outside in March or April, if planting between April and May; cultivate Gypsophila in a greenhouse, prior to planting outdoors. When putting the plants in a pot or moving them to an alternative location, it’s beneficial to know how much space the plants require.

Certain species will necessitate different amounts of space. For example, Gypsophila repens grows in a wide network and as such, demand around 50 cm of space between each plant. Without this space, they won’t be able to optimally expand. But variety of seed determined the distance between plant to plant and row to row.

The Festival series provides all of those benefits and more, offering the versatility to perform as a superior cut flower as well. Festival varieties flower early under long day conditions, and offer an extended flowering period covering spring, summer and autumn. With both semi and double flowers in the series, Festival produces tiny delicate flowers (less than half an inch) in clusters on plants ranging from 12 to 16 inches tall. Growth habits range from appealingly compact to medium to upright and vigorous.

 

Seven colors make up the series, in soft to bright shades of pink and white. Three of the newest colors are Pink Splash, White Flare and Pink Lady. Pink Splash produces medium-sized pink clusters of flowers eight to 10 weeks after planting. Growing only 12 to 14 inches tall, it stays appealingly compact. White Flare bears prolific beautiful clusters of small, glowing white semi-double flowers 12 to 14 weeks after planting. It has a petite, compact habit, reaching only 14 to 16 inches tall. Pink Lady is a vigorous grower producing beautiful large, deep pink, semi-double flowers 11 to 13 weeks after planting.

All of the Festival varieties work well as standalones, in combinations or as cut flowers. They are hardy in Zones 4 to 10.

 

Gypsophila paniculata is used as a cut flower. Its beautiful inflorescence (panicle) is formed by many white or pink coloured, small flowers. This is a species native to the Mediterranean, which means that it is suited to intermediate environmental conditions for its natural growth, and although, being a long day plant, it needs a great number of light hours to bloom. These plants show excellent vegetative and floral development in non-natural growth condition cycles as long as their thermic and lighting needs are covered. It can be grown continuously with 2 to 3 cycles of flowering per year and can last 2 to 3 years. It needs sandy or porous soil in order to regulate its moisture uptake, while excess water can seriously harm it. small secondary stems mean that it needs a guide, which is usually provided by several meshes at different heights. Vegetative development out of season is improved by the application of growth regulators e.g. gibberellins. Pests and diseases can be controlled. Stems are harvested when 30 or 40% of the flowers have started to open, although similar good quality results can be obtained by applying artificial opening techniques when only 5% of the flowers are open.

 

Special Note: that these are general guidelines. You will need to make necessary adjustments when growing in different climatic conditions and different agricultural practices.

Greenhouse DESGIN for Gypsophila growth

To attained maximum and minimum air value, the roof top open greenhouse is recommended for growth of the Gypsophila in greenhouse. In heated environments preferable structure is construct with GI metal and PE cover, Roof vent typology affected greenhouse air temperature and relative humidity (RH) as well as crop yield and quality. During summer, the maximum values of air temperature (38.7°C) and the minimum values of RH (31.2%) are mandatory in the greenhouse with chimney top vents. In the same period, the lowest temperature increases (+7.2°C) and hygrometric reductions (1 0C) is recorded in the structure equipped with seagull-wing vents and two head-ventilators. In the latter greenhouse

Similarly to monitor the internal climate regular climate data and sunrise/sunset data are essential through thermo-hygrometric sensors connected to a data logger, analyzed with platform software and compared to the external values.

 

Costing and profitability scope

SL Description      
1 Size 210×210 FT
2 Cultivation area 190×210 FT
3 Planting 50 CM 35 lines 12,215
4 Stems per plant 8-13 stems
5 seed Indeterminated
6 Harvesting 2-3    
7 Number of stems in year 12,215 x 13 stems 158,795 x 3 = 476,385 stems
8 Bunches 5-10 stems 476,385 / 5 = 95277 bunches
9 Pricing PKR 36 to 57/- 57 x 95,277 5,430,789.00
10 Cost of production PKR 188,336.00 per acre
11 Heating system on natural gas PKR 175,000.00
12 Electricity in greenhouse 31 unit x 13×30= PKR 12090 x 12= 145,080.00
13 Extra Labour PKR 144,000.00
14 Total cost PKR 652,416
15 Per bunch cost PKR 6.85
16 Per stem cost PKR 1.37
17 Difference between cost / revenue  
18 Revenue PKR 5,430,789.00
19 cost 652,416.00
20 Market commission 10 % 543,078.00
21 Gross profit 4,235,294.00
22 Income Tex 17% 719,999.00 or PKR 1.51/stem
23 Net profit 3,515,295.00
24 IRR 5 YEARS
25 Per stem revenue PKR 11.4
26 Per stem cost PKR 1.37 + 1.51=  PKR 2.88
27 Per stem net profit PKR 8.53
28 International market price USD 0.22 to 0.37/ stem

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The proposed Smart Agriculture facilitations

 

The proposed smart agriculture is based on LoRa technology, which is widely acceptable in greenhouse and outside cultivation within 5 KM radius monitoring. Through this system we can collect data, store data and monitor/operate through computer and mobiles.

 

Photosynthesis System

 

Photosynthesis System is a portable, single-handed tool that measures photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, stomatal conductance, PAR and internal CO­2. Light-weight and durable, the CI-340 was designed for field use. The optional accessory modules allow researchers to control CO2, H2O, temperature, light intensity, and measure chlorophyll fluorescence, while the ten different customized chambers accommodate any leaf size, including conifer needles and cacti. Direct chamber connection to the CO2/H2O gas analyzer reduces measurement delay and enables rapid measurement of gas exchange with minimal delays. This equipment will supply on demand.

 

 

Supplementary   light   is provided to

chrysanthemum for delaying the blooming in year round

cut flower production. For giving artificial lighting, a

combination of fluorescent light and incandescent bulb was

used. The intensity of  artificial light was about 150 Lux.

This was  achieved  by suspending overhead 40 Watt tubes

and 40 Watt bulbs hung  about 2 meters above the tip of

plants.  50 pots of chrysanthemum  in  vegetative  stage

were kept and the lights were kept ON for four hours from

10 p.m. to 2 a.m. every night so that long continuous dark

period is interrupted and divided into  two portions non of

which is long enough  (9½ hours) to initiate flower  buds.

Supplementary   light   is provided to

chrysanthemum for delaying the blooming in year round

cut flower production. For giving artificial lighting, a

combination of fluorescent light and incandescent bulb was

used. The intensity of  artificial light was about 150 Lux.

This was  achieved  by suspending overhead 40 Watt tubes

and 40 Watt bulbs hung  about 2 meters above the tip of

plants.  50 pots of chrysanthemum  in  vegetative  stage

were kept and the lights were kept ON for four hours from

10 p.m. to 2 a.m. every night so that long continuous dark

period is interrupted and divided into  two portions non of

which is long enough  (9½ hours) to initiate flower  buds.

 

SALIENT FEATURES OF GREENHOUSE

 

ITEMS DETIALS
ONE ACRE SIZE IS VARY IN DIFFERENT PART OF PAKISTAN semi commercial unit. 210 FT X 210 FT OR 210 FT X 198 FT
SQFT 44100 SQFT
DESIGN MULTI SPAN 30 FT X 210 FT X 7 SPANS open roof top
EQUIPMENT PLACED AREA. 25 X 100 FT
RAIN DRAINAGE SYSTEM GI GUTTER SYSTEM
GREEN HOUSE STRUCTURE  FOR 80- 12O KMPH WIND GI PIPE TUBE PILLARS 3” WITH THICKNESS 2MM,ARCH WT 2” WT 2MM, SUPPORT BARS 2” WT 2MM, 25MM WT 2 MM AND 16MM WT 2MM
COVER SHEET, PLOY FLIM OR POLY CARBONATE SHEET 200 MICROON , 5 LAYER

 

SHEET FAXING PROFILE AND ZIGZAG WIRE
GREEN SHADE FR, BOTH AUTOMATIC OR MANUL INSIDE OR OUT SIDE GREEN HOUSE AS DEMAND ALONG WITH SIDE WALLS
CIVIL WORK CONTREATE SIDE WALLS, TUFF TILES FLOORING OR SAND MUD WITH FABRIC SHEET AS PER LEVEL OF LAND.
DOOR ALUMIUN SLIDING DOOR
VENTILATION & COOLING SYSTEM  FOR 617400 CFM COOLING PAD, EXHUAST FAN, CIRCULATING FAN
MESTING & FOGGING, AIR PRUFICATION, INSECT SPARY IMPORTED SYSTEM
FERTILER INJECTION (FRETIGATION SYSTEM) FRENCH OR CHINESE DOZING SYSTEM per BLOCKS
WATER CONTROL SYSTEM AUTOMATIC WATER CONTROLLING SYSTEM  18 ZONES
NUTIRENT WATER DISTRIBUTION AND STORAGE TANKS NUTIRENT WATER DISTRIBUTION AND RECYCLING SYSTEM
WATER PUREFICATION SYSTEM SCAN FILTER, MUD AND SAND CLEANING SYSTEM
CO2 CO2 SYSTEM
Cos SYSTEM AND AIR SYSTEM OXGEN SYSTEM, AIR SYSTEM
HUMIDITY AND DEHUMIDIFY HUMIDITY AND DEHUMIDITFY
SMART EQUIPMENT  senor system with monitoring and operation
HEATING SYSTEM TO MAINTAIN TEMPRATURE
LIGHTING SYSTEM LED LIGHTING SYSTEM

 

General Information of TUNNEL

Description Details
Low tunnel Normal used DEC-FEB to cover crop. Length 210 x 2-3 x 2 FT
D type tunnel D type is commonly used, the size of tunnel is

Length 210 x widths 6 x 8 height FT number in one acre 14 for vegetables like Cucumber, melons, watermelons, bitter gourds, squashes, and snake gourds etc. can be grown in these tunnels.

Small arm tunnel (walk in tunnel) Small arm tunnel is known as a walk in tunnel

210 x 10 x 8 FT 14 Walk-in-tunnels provide high yield compared to Low tunnels. The tunnel is suitable for growing tomatoes, cucumbers, sweet pepper and hot pepper.

High arm tunnel High arm tunnel is known as a  the size is L 210 x 25-30 x 14 FT 7 tunnel in acre , number of bed 6 and number row are 12.High tunnels give maximum yield of crops and make easy soil preparation, picking, spraying due to its width and height. The tunnel is suitable for growing tomatoes, cucumbers and sweet peppers.
Special Tunnel high arm Special design for snow fall areas and for fruits tree, SIZE is L 210 x W 25-30 x H 22-25, this special design for high snow and windy areas. Sustained 80-120 km/h wind below.
Climate Control tunnel Climate control for hydroponic, aeroponic and aquaponic system, size of tunnel normally is L 210 x W 25-30 x H 14 FT equipped with Cooling Pad, Exhaust Fan, Circulating Fan, Misting and Humidity system and controller, Fertilizers injection system, Drip irrigation to totally automatic watering system, R.O.plant, water Sterilization system, water Filtering system, HIP, HPS and growing UV Lighting system, Smart controlling system along with sensors, Co2, Ozona, oxygen and PLC system, Germination system etc.

 

 

 

 

 

 

TUNNEL CONSTRUCTION COST /ACRE

Description Details
Walk in tunnel  number of 14 tunnel 32mm  8,76000.00
Walk in tunnel 25 mm 1.2 thickness 7,35000.00
High Arm Tunnel numbers of tunnel 6 1,975,800.00
HIGH ARM TUNNEL 3″ AND ARCH 2″ WITH THICKNESS 1.2 MM PKR  SPECIAL TUNNEL 2985800.00
Calamite   control tunnel numbers of tunnel 6 6,999,700.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONSTRUCTION COST OF MULTI SPAN PROJECT Gypsophila greenhouse:

CONSTRUCTION COST    
Skelton 3” WT 2MM, ARCH 2” WT 2MM, SUPPORT BARS 25MM WT 2MM 16 MM WT 2MM (multi span) 3,998,899.00  
COVERSHEET 200 MICROON 1,050,000.00  
Open top equipment 872900.00 5921,799.00
Profile file and zigzag wire 229000.00 229000.00
MISTING 2 MICROON 275,000.00 275,000.00
     
COOLING PADS, EXHUAST FAN, CIRCULATING FAN, HUMIDITY CONTROLING SYSTEM (AUTOMATIC ) 1,967,630.00 1.967,630.00
HEATING SYSTEM (AMERICAN) 2,735,437.00 2,735,437.00
HUMIDITY AND DEHUMIDITIFDY 345,000.00 345,000.00
LIGHTING 2,743,125.00  
ELECTRIC PANEL 475,000.00  
WIRING 333,557.00 3,077,157.00
DRIP IRRIGATION 927,800.00 927,800.00
GREEN SHADE 456,700.00 456,700.00
SMART AGRICULTURE SENORS SYSTEM

If required

1,695,000.00 1,695,000.00
CIVIL WORK  PKR 45 FT X 44100 SQFT 375,500.00 375,500.00
MISC 100,000.00 100,000.00
     
SMART AGRICULTURE EQUIPMENT AS PER REQUIRMENT & DEMAND
LABOUR COST 750,000.00 750,000.00
TOTAL:   1,9330,548.00
EXCHANGE RATE 1 USD = PKR 156   US123,913 $
SERVICES CHARGES 6 % OF TOTAL COST   1,159,832.00
     

INTERNATION PRICE OF ONE ACRE AUTOMATIC GREENHOUSE IS USD 61 PER SQFT.

  • ABOVE CACULATION BASED USD 1= PKR 156, USD FLECTION MIGHT BE MINUS – PLUS IN COST
  • ALL GOVT DUTIES AND TAXES WILL ADD-UP ACCORDINGLY
  • REPLACMENT OF EQUIPMENT
  • 75 % ADVANCE, 15 % IN MIDDLE OF JOB AND 10 % ON COMPELETION OF JOB.
  • BANK CHARGES WILL BE ADDED UP IN COST.
  • TRUCKING, DUTY AND TAXES WILL BE ADDED IN COST.

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION OF DUA ENTERPRISES

Dua Enterprises

Dua Enterprises is commerce in Landscaping, Horticulture, Automatic Irrigation System,

Green House, hydroponic systems and in alternative energy with aim of enriching of environment, facilitate. Gardening dream into luxurious lawn and backyard garden, accomplish the needs of Green Pakistan and familiarize counter-strategy and induction of technology to cater to new emerging challenges of water shortage, power shortage, and food security.

 

Dua Enterprises is one of the leading Greenhouse, hydroponic, Aquaponics, Aeroponics Construction Company having the ability to use most advanced technology to construct greenhouses for all kinds of growers from all over Pakistan as per their requirement. With our well-experienced staff we design, manufacture and construct Greenhouses & hydroponic units considering the Pakistan environment and topography and known for its technological excellence in this field.

 

We specialize in greenhouse designing, assembling and manufacturing We provide a one-stop solution for greenhouse designs, structures, covering material, kits, weather-control equipment, irrigation equipment and material for greenhouse planting. Our products include Economical Plastic Tunnel, Multi-span Plastic Greenhouse, Poly-Film, polycarbonate, Greenhouse accessories, Shading Equipment, Ventilation Equipment’s, Cooling Equipment’s, Irrigation Systems, Planting Equipment’s, computer monitoring system hydroponic types of equipment like all type of NFT system, deep water system, etc.

 

Dua Enterprises is associated with world-known companies, Hortimax Green-tech Holland, Ridder Drive Systems B.V. Holland, Hydroponic Technology USA, AYS PROJE TAAHHÜT SAN. TİC. A.Ş.  Turkey’s greenhouse services China. Our principal not only assisted us with technology/ material but also participated physically in construction of projects and a joint venture in GCC countries.

We assist our clients in the construction of the greenhouse, hydroponics and drip irrigation, after-sale services, training of concern staff, facilitation in inputs, seeds, equipment’s, financial institutions /bank loans, marketing and sale of products in local market and foreign market especially Russia, GCC and China.

 

Muhammad Shoaib Akbar

Director

Dua Enterprises

17 F HBFC ICHHRA APARTMENT RASOOL PARK ICHHRA LAHORE

03341418925, 0300 4218953

Shoaibdua2009@gmail.com

www.duaenterprises.net