4 season cropping
PURPOSE OF THE DOCUMENT.
The objective of the pre-feasibility study is primarily to facilitate potential entrepreneurs, progressive farmers in project identification for investment and future prospective of modern agriculture emergence as an industry and its growth, profitability, sustainability as a profitable venture. The project pre-feasibility may form the basis of an important investment decision and in order to serve this objective, the document/study covers various aspects of project concept development, start-up, and production methodology, marketing, finance and business management.
Pakistan Weather condition and Croping
Because of disparate climatic conditions, the susceptibility index (Pakistan is ranked on 21 GCRI) of climate change in Pakistan is very high as compared to several countries around the globe. Pakistan lies in the temperate zone. The climate is generally arid, characterized by hot summers and cool or cold winters, and wide variations between extremes of temperature at given locations. There is little rainfall. The important climate change threats to Pakistan are: Considerable increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, coupled with erratic monsoon rains causing frequent and intense floods and droughts, in recent period 43 districts of Sindh, Baluchistan and Punjab were severely hit by drought. Climate change leads to an increase in pest insect populations, harming yields of staple crops like wheat, soybeans, and corn. While warmer temperatures create longer growing seasons and faster growth rates for plants, it also increases the metabolic rate and number of breeding cycles of insect populations in the 2019 cotton grower complaint of uncontrollable insect attacked, which is vanished cotton crops from district to district. A study reveals that increasing temperature and the changing pattern of rainfall have a substantial impact on food production. A recent study anticipates that the wheat production of South Asia will decline by 50% by 2050—equal to almost 7% of the global crop production. The know institute states that agricultural production in developing countries will further fall between 10% to 25% and global warming will decrease the agricultural capacity by 40% if it continues unabated. A decrease of 1.9% was observed in wheat production from 25.979 million tons to 25.478 million tonnes during the period from 2013–2014 to 2014–2015. The production of maize is decreased by five percent from 4.6944 million tonnes to 4.695 million tonnes during the period 2013–2014 to 2014–2015. Sugarcane is one of the important cash crops of Pakistan. It earned US$171.78 million of precious foreign exchange during the period 2014–2015. The production of sugarcane reduced from 67.5 million to 62.5 million from 2014 to 2015.
Climate change impacts on Pakistan are manifold like Heavy rainfalls, floods, severe drought and land devastation and eradication; these impacts are harshly affected agriculture and severely emerged as a food security challenges, unemployment, and obliteration of family fabric, social network and socio-economic and political conditions. That alarming situation demands to change the course of old cultivation patterns with modern techniques and technology.
Concept of Greenhouse
Greenhouses are frames of the inflated structure covered with a transparent material in which crops are grown under controlled environment conditions. … The primary environmental parameter traditionally controlled is temperature, usually providing heat to overcome extreme cold conditions. Greenhouse Technology is the technique of providing favorable environmental conditions to the plants. It is rather used to protect the plants from adverse climatic conditions such as wind, cold, precipitation, excessive radiation, extreme temperature, insects and diseases.
The origin of life on earth explains the basic concept of the greenhouse. Before the origin of any living organism on the earth, the temperature of earth was around -18°C due to the absence of an atmosphere between earth and sun. Various gases namely nitrogen (N), carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), oxygen (O2), nitrous oxide (N2O), etc. available inside earth came out through spaces between plates of earth and formed a porous layer around earth, known as atmosphere. The newly formed atmosphere around the earth had a unique property that it absorbed ultraviolet and far-infrared radiation coming from the sun and allowed only short-wavelength (0.3-3 μm) radiation emitted by the sun to reach the earth surface. Further, the atmosphere did not allow long-wavelength (> 3.0 μm) radiation emitted by the earth. Hence, the trapped thermal energy raised the temperature of the earth and air between earth and atmosphere. The rise of the temperature of the air is known as the greenhouse effect. According to Encyclopedia 2000, the greenhouse effect for the environment is defined as:
Greenhouse Effect – the term for the role the atmosphere plays in insulating and warming the earth’s surface. The atmosphere is largely transparent to incoming solar radiation. When this radiation strikes the earth’s surface, some of it is absorbed, thereby warming the earth’s surface. The surface of the earth emits some of this energy back out in the form of infrared radiation. As this infrared radiation travels through the atmosphere, much of it is absorbed by atmospheric gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and water vapor.
These gases then re-emit infrared radiation, some of which strikes and is absorbed by the earth. The absorption of infrared energy by the atmosphere and the earth called the greenhouse effect, maintains a temperature range on earth that is hospitable to life.
Advantages of Green House
A greenhouse is a closed space for the cultivation of fruits and vegetables, consists of a structure that support a translucent outer shell, glass, polycarbonate sheet or plastic sheet 100 to 200 micron. It is a protected place where you can control environmental factors for optimal plant growth.
1- Good distribution of light inside the greenhouse. The greenhouse covers can change the direction of the sun’s rays, thus evenly distributed over the entire surface, benefiting the entire greenhouse and avoiding the sun’s rays directly to the plant.
2- Energy efficiency. Takes advantage of the environmental conditions, such as optimizing the heat inside the greenhouse.
3- Control of microclimate. One of the main advantages of a greenhouse is to control and establish the optimal environment for cultivation. You can adjust the temperature, humidity, lighting, etc.
4- Protection against diseases, pests and other vermin. Another advantage of a greenhouse is that it is very difficult to enter as it is a closed space.
5- Excellent ventilation. You can ventilate the greenhouse quickly, thanks to their zenithal or side windows.
6- Optimum sealing against rain and air.
7- Increased production. This is a great advantage of a greenhouse, can intensify production due to weather conditions, can accelerate the growth of the plants and also allows a greater amount of crop on the surface. According to analyses 10-12 % higher growth rate is through the greenhouse.
8- Production off-season. Thanks to the environmental control of the greenhouse can produce off-season; therefore we will have a better sale price and a continuous supply of the product.
9- Production in regions with adverse weather conditions.
10- Ability to grow all year. You can get more than one crop cycle per year and different species of plants.
11- Optimizes the use of other technologies to facilitate the management of climate (heating, humidification, shade screens or saving energy, etc.)
According to one survey, 30 % of crop losses are reported during harvesting and unfavorable weather condition. In Baluchistan, KPK and northern area fruits orchards are facing heavy losses due to weather and unavailability of water. Cultivation in Greenhouse is world know and recommended phenomena and farmers are getting more production and saved water, fertilizer and pesticide expenditure. For example tomatoes one-acre greenhouse, with 11000 plants, production 137500 kg can generate PKR 5,500,000 per year.” The cost of producing each tomato plant in a greenhouse per plant is PKR 300 in a year.
Similarly, Greenhouses were once called orangeries in Europe and were originally built to grow orange trees indoors. Now you can grow all kinds of fruit trees in the greenhouse, controlling the environment to ensure that trees produce a healthy harvest. Whether you grow fruit in the greenhouse year-round or simply move fruit trees inside to protect them from the winter cold, the greenhouse is a cozy place for fruit trees at any time of year.
Different Pattern of Growth in Greenhouse
Along with traditional soil cultivation now a day greenhouse technology is very advance and different pattern of growth are under practice most of them is Soilless cultivation like Hydroponic, Aquaponic, Aeroponic, Vertical farming, peat moss bag, coco coir bags growing system are most common.
But most commonly in tunnels and greenhouse is Round tunnel D shape, V tunnel and pyramid type of tunnel and greenhouses.
Traditional tunnels to HI- tech multi-span greenhouse are consisting of the following systems like Cooling Pad, Exhaust Fan, Circulating Fan, Misting and Humidity system and controller, Fertilizers injection system, Drip irrigation to totally automatic watering system, R.O.plant, water Sterilization system, water Filtering system, HIP, HPS and growing UV Lighting system, Smart controlling system along with sensors, Co2, Ozona, oxygen and PLC system, Germination system, etc.
Smart Agriculture and greenhouse
Today smart Agriculture devices change the whole agriculture concept, from growing- harvesting-marketing are control and single handle manageable. In 2020 to 2025 agriculture completely converted /controlled on smart agriculture devices.
Photosynthesis System is a portable, single-handed tool that measures photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, stomatal conductance, PAR and internal CO2. Light-weight and durable, the CI-340 was designed for field use. The optional accessory modules allow researchers to control CO2, H2O, temperature, light intensity, and measure chlorophyll fluorescence, while the ten different customized chambers accommodate any leaf size, including conifer needles and cacti. Direct chamber connection to the CO2/H2O gas analyzer reduces measurement delay and enables rapid measurement of gas exchange with minimal delays.
IoT of agriculture
Improving agricultural productivity requires investments in smart IoT technologies. This allows agricultural producers to obtain data for better controlling crop growth, preventing losses caused by adverse weather conditions or infectious pests and thus, facilitating the return on investments.
As the return on investments can be quantified in terms of actual numbers. According to a recent FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) report, between 2005 and 2015, natural disasters cost $96 billion in damage to agricultural and livestock production. Weather disasters such as storms or extreme temperatures caused losses of $26.5 billion and biological disasters, such as pests and infestations, caused crop losses of $9.5 billion. In Asia, the region of the world where agriculture has been most affected by disasters, floods and storms have had the greatest impact.
Basically, precision agriculture is about managing variations in the field to increase crop yield, raise productivity and reduce consumption of agricultural inputs.
Agriculture still remains greatly un-penetrated by IoT technologies, but perspectives are positive about future market trends. Recent studies estimate that the total value for precision agriculture solutions will reach €4.2 billion by 2021.
Smart Greenhouse Remote Monitoring Systems
Smart greenhouse monitoring systems are the most advanced technology to monitor and control your entire operation remotely from your iPhone and Android devices. Maintaining a controlled temperature within a greenhouse environment is crucial. Temperature fluctuations can damage or kill plants in only a few hours. Remote monitoring systems protect valuable plants from extreme temperature fluctuations. To monitor conditions like humidity fluctuations, security breaches, heater, fan, equipment and power failures. When your plants are on risk, every second count. The sooner you discover a drop in temperature or equipment failure, the more inventories you can save. Remote monitoring systems provide real-time updates, so you can take action. The controllers are the heart behind your system where your different sensors soil, outdoor and indoor temperature and humidity) and actuators like your shade screens and LED lights system are connected to and link to the automation software.
|Low tunnel||Normal used DEC-FEB to cover crop. Length 210 x 2-3 x 2 FT|
|D type tunnel||D type is commonly used, the size of tunnel is
Length 210 x widths 6 x 8 height FT number in one acre 14 for vegetables like Cucumber, melons, watermelons, bitter gourds, squashes, and snake gourds etc. can be grown in these tunnels.
|Small arm tunnel (walk in tunnel)||Small arm tunnel is known as a walk in tunnel
210 x 10 x 8 FT 14 Walk-in-tunnels provide high yield compared to Low tunnels. The tunnel is suitable for growing tomatoes, cucumbers, sweet pepper and hot pepper.
|High arm tunnel||High arm tunnel is known as a the size is L 210 x 25-30 x 14 FT 7 tunnel in acre , number of bed 6 and number row are 12.High tunnels give maximum yield of crops and make easy soil preparation, picking, spraying due to its width and height. The tunnel is suitable for growing tomatoes, cucumbers and sweet peppers.|
|Special Tunnel high arm||Special design for snow fall areas and for fruits tree, SIZE is L 210 x W 25-30 x H 22-25, this special design for high snow and windy areas. Sustained 80-120 km/h wind below.|
|Climate Control tunnel||Climate control for hydroponic, aeroponic and aquaponic system, size of tunnel normally is L 210 x W 25-30 x H 14 FT equipped with Cooling Pad, Exhaust Fan, Circulating Fan, Misting and Humidity system and controller, Fertilizers injection system, Drip irrigation to totally automatic watering system, R.O.plant, water Sterilization system, water Filtering system, HIP, HPS and growing UV Lighting system, Smart controlling system along with sensors, Co2, Ozona, oxygen and PLC system, Germination system etc.
Multispan are different type
Multi span greenhouse is design as per client requirement it can be extended up to acres. Best size of commercial green house is 2 ha to 5 ha
|SIZE||L 210 x Width depend of land size x 14 FT.|
|Span size||25 FT or 30 FT as per requirement|
|One acre||6-7 span with rainwater drainage (Gutter system)|
|Types of Multi type||TOP closed and arm side open, left top open, right top open, both side open|
|Cultivation||Soil and soil less (hydroponic, aeroponic etc.)|
|Facilitation in green house||Equipped with Cooling Pad, Exhaust Fan, Circulating Fan, Misting and Humidity system and controller, Fertilizers injection system, Drip irrigation to totally automatic watering system, R.O. plant, water Sterilization system, water Filtering system, HIP, HPS and growing UV Lighting system, Smart controlling system along with sensors, Co2, Ozona, oxygen and PLC system, Germination system etc.|
SALIENT FEATURES OF GREENHOUSE.
|ONE ACRE SIZE IS VARY IN DIFFERENT PART OF PAKISTAN semi commercial unit.||210 FT X 210 FT OR 210 FT X 198 FT|
|DESIGN||MULTI SPAN 30 FT X 210 FT X 7 SPANS|
|EQUIPMENT PLACED AREA.||25 X 100 FT|
|RAIN DRAINAGE SYSTEM||GI GUTTER SYSTEM|
|GREEN HOUSE STRUCTURE FOR 80- 12O KMPH WIND||GI PIPE TUBE PILLARS 3” WITH THICKNESS 2MM,ARCH WT 2” WT 2MM, SUPPORT BARS 2” WT 2MM, 25MM WT 2 MM AND 16MM WT 2MM|
|COVER SHEET, PLOY FLIM OR POLY CARBONATE SHEET||200 MICROON , 5 LAYER
19’ X 81” AND 6MM POLYCARBONATE SHEET AS PER DEMAND OF AREA & WIND PRESSURE & SNOW WEIGHT
|SHEET FAXING||PROFILE AND ZIGZAG WIRE|
|GREEN SHADE||FR, BOTH AUTOMATIC OR MANUL INSIDE OR OUT SIDE GREEN HOUSE AS DEMAND ALONG WITH SIDE WALLS|
|CIVIL WORK||CONTREATE SIDE WALLS, TUFF TILES FLOORING OR SAND MUD WITH FABRIC SHEET AS PER LEVEL OF LAND.|
|DOOR||ALUMIUN SLIDING DOOR|
|VENTILATION & COOLING SYSTEM FOR 617400 CFM||COOLING PAD, EXHUAST FAN, CIRCULATING FAN|
|MESTING & FOGGING, AIR PRUFICATION, INSECT SPARY||IMPORTED SYSTEM|
|FERTILER INJECTION (FRETIGATION SYSTEM)||FRENCH OR CHINESE DOZING SYSTEM per BLOCKS|
|WATER CONTROL SYSTEM||AUTOMATIC WATER CONTROLLING SYSTEM 17 ZONES|
|NUTIRENT WATER DISTRIBUTION AND STORAGE TANKS||NUTIRENT WATER DISTRIBUTION AND RECYCLING SYSTEM|
|WATER PUREFICATION SYSTEM||SCAN FILTER, MUD AND SAND CLEANING SYSTEM|
|RO PLANTS||TO CONTROL TDS LEVEL OF WATER|
|Cos SYSTEM AND AIR SYSTEM||OXGEN SYSTEM, AIR SYSTEM|
|INNER SYSTEM||Co2, Ozon,|
|SMART EQUIPMENT||Plant phenotyping system, photo thesis system, IoT, senor system with monitoring and operation.|
|GERMINATION area required 25×150 FT||19000 PLANTS GERMINATION AREA AND GROWING TRAYS, WATERING SYSTEM AND TABLES OR STANDS, 100 PLANTS FOR CHANGE OF WEAK PLANTS IN SYSTEM.|
|PLANTS GROWING UNITS/POCKETS IN GUTTER SYSTEM||15860 GROWING UNITS OR POCKETS|
|DUTCH BUCKET SYSTEM||13440 GROWING UNITS OR POCKETS|
TUNNEL CONSTRUCTION COST /ACRE
|Walk in tunnel number of 14 tunnel||176000.00|
|High Arm Tunnel numbers of tunnel 6||1,975,800.00|
|HIGH ARM TUNNEL 3″ AND ARCH 2″ WITH THICKNESS 1.2 MM PKR SPECIAL TUNNEL||2985800.00|
|Calamite control tunnel numbers of tunnel 6||6,999,700|
CONSTRUCTION COST OF MULTI SPAN PROJECT:
|Skelton 3” WT 2MM, ARCH 2” WT 2MM, SUPPORT BARS 25MM WT 2MM 16 MM WT 2MM (multi span)||2,998,899.00|
|COVERSHEET 200 MICROON||950,000.00||3,948,899.00|
|MISTING AND FOGGING SYSTEM (AUTOMATIC)|
|LOCAL OR CHINESE||225,000.00||225,000.00|
|COOLING AND VENTILATION SYSTEM (AUTOMATIC)|
|COOLING PADS, EXHUAST FAN, CIRCULATING FAN, HUMIDITY CONTROLING SYSTEM (AUTOMATIC )||8,77,300.00||8,77,300.00|
|OXYGEN SYSTEM AND AIRPUREFICATION SYSTEM||179,000.00||179,000.00|
|SHADING MAUAL OPERATED||495,000.00||495,000.00|
|ELECTRIC PANNEL, WIRING||270,000.00||270,000.00|
|HANG CLIPS & GI WIRE||295,000||295,000|
|CIVIL WORK PKR 45 FT X 44100 SQFT||275,500.00||275,500.00|
|SMART AGRICULTURE EQUIPMENT||AS PER REQUIRMENT & DEMAND|
|EXCHANGE RATE 1 USD = PKR 16O||US41660 $|
|SERVICES CHARGES 6 % OF TOTAL COST||399,941.00|
INTERNATION PRICE OF ONE ACRE AUTOMATIC GREENHOUSE IS USD 61 PER SQFT.
- ABOVE CACULATION BASED USD 1= PKR 160, USD FLECTION MIGHT BE MINUS – PLUS IN COST
- ALL GOVT DUTIES AND TAXES WILL ADD-UP ACCORDINGLY
- REPLACMENT OF EQUIPMENT
|REPLACMENT OF COVER SHEET IN YEARS||4|
|REPLACMENT green shade||6|
|REPLACMENT OF COOLING PADS||5|
|Total project financing||PKR 6665699|
|Owner equity||50 %|
|Bank equity if bank is involved||50 %|
|Markup||Interest rate Agri bank 6 % interest rate % 12.50|
|Tenure is payback (years )||5|
- PROJECT ECONOMICS
|INTERNAL RATE OF RETURN (IRR)||32 %|
|PAYBACK PERIOD (Yrs)||2.2|
|NET PRESENT VALUE (NPV) Rs.||13629010|
|Operational cost||20-23 %|
- The above tables shows internal rate of return, payback period and net present value. Return on investment and its profitability are highly dependent on the entrepreneur having some practical knowledge about agriculture, framing, technology know how, operational capacity of staff and market knowledge. Selection of high quality seeds, fertilizer, supplements and vegetables cultivation.
- KEY ASSUSPTIONS
|DESCRITION (Operating cost assumption)||DETAILS|
|Administration benefits expenses||05% of admin expense|
|21,000 annual expense|
|Travelling expense||35,000 annual expense|
|Promotional expense on social media||75,000|
|Professional fees (legal, audit, consultant)||05% of revenue|
|Office vehicles insurance rate||10%|
|Depreciation on green house and equipment’s||33 %|
|Depreciation of vehicle||20 %|
|Operating costs growth rate||5 %|
|Accounts receivable cycle||25 days|
|Raw material inventory||06 months|
|Amortization of pre operating expenses||05 years|
|Description of production cost assumption||Details|
|Cost of goods sold growth rates||10 %|
|Operating cost growth rate||5 %|
|Vegetable market expense||10 %|
|Farm to market trip cost||PKR8000x 12= 96000 per trip load 14 tons
No of trips 12
|Description of Revenue assumption|
|Sales prices growth rate||10 %|
|Production capacity utilization (1-10)||100 %|
|Days operation||365 days|
|Project life||10 %|
|Structure grantees||20-25 year|
|Interest rate on debt||20 %|
|Debt payment years||10|
INTRODUCTION OF DUA ENTERPRISES
Dua Enterprises is commerce in Landscaping, Horticulture, Automatic Irrigation System,
Green House, hydroponic systems and in alternative energy with aim of enriching of environment, facilitate. Gardening dream into luxurious lawn and backyard garden, accomplish the needs of
Green Pakistan and familiarize counter-strategy and induction of technology to cater to new emerging challenges of water shortage, power shortage, and food security.
Dua Enterprises is one of the leading Greenhouse and hydroponic construction company having the ability to use most advanced technology to construct greenhouses for all kinds of growers from all over Pakistan as per their requirement. With our well-experienced staff we design, manufacture and construct Greenhouses & hydroponic units considering the Pakistan environment and topography and known for its technological excellence in this field.
We specialize in greenhouse designing, assembling and manufacturing We provide a one-stop solution for greenhouse designs, structures, covering material, kits, weather-control equipment, irrigation equipment and material for greenhouse planting. Our products include Economical Plastic Tunnel, Multi-span Plastic Greenhouse, Poly-Film, polycarbonate, Greenhouse accessories, Shading Equipment, Ventilation Equipment’s, Cooling Equipment’s, Irrigation Systems, Planting Equipment’s, computer monitoring system hydroponic types of equipment like all type of NFT system, deep water system, etc.
Dua Enterprises is associated with world-known companies, Hortimax Green-tech Holland, Ridder Drive Systems B.V. Holland, Hydroponic Technology USA, AYS PROJE TAAHHÜT SAN. TİC. A.Ş. Turkey’s greenhouse services China. Our principal not only assisted us with technology/ material but also participated physically in construction of projects and a joint venture in GCC countries.
We assist our clients in the construction of the greenhouse, hydroponics and drip irrigation, after-sale services, training of concern staff, facilitation in inputs, seeds, equipment’s, financial institutions /bank loans, marketing and sale of products in local market and foreign market especially Russia, GCC and China.
- Automatic Drip Irrigation system.
- Green House
- Hydroponic system. Both vegetables & fodder.
- Urban farming and Vertical farming for small scale growers or those who transform their rooftops and vacant rooms into growing units.
- Smart Agriculture equipment’s and Machinery
Muhammad Shoaib Akbar
17 F HBFC ICHHRA APARTMENT RASOOL PARK ICHHRA LAHORE
03341418925, 0300 4218953